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STUDIES OF 
CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 



BY 

PAUL C. STANDLEY 

CURATOR OF THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
AND 

JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 



4? 




BOTANICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

VOLUME 23, NUMBER 5 

OCTOBER 22, 1947 

PUBLICATION 609 



STUDIES OF 
CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 



BY 

PAUL C. STANDLEY 

CURATOR OP THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OP BOTANY 
AND 

JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OP THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 




BOTANICAL SERIES 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 23, NUMBER 5 

OCTOBER 22, 1947 
PUBLICATION 609 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

NOV 141947 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 




STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 



PAUL C. STANDLEY AND JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 



The present paper consists almost wholly of descriptions of new 
species of Guatemalan plants. The descriptions and illustrations of 
four of the new Acanthaceae have been supplied by Mr. Emery C. 
Leonard of the United States National Museum. The paper includes 
also the diagnosis of a proposed new genus of Rubiaceae from the 
mountains of Costa Rica. 

CYPERACEAE 

Carex huehueteca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta dense 
caespitosa, rhizomatibus brevibus crassis, culmis gracilibus erectis 
60 cm. altis et ultra, obtuse trigonis, infra nodos purpureo-brunneis, 
laevibus; foliorum vaginae latae laxae intense purpureo-brunneae; 
folia numerosa tenuia in sicco pallide viridia, laminis 12-27 cm. 
longis ca. 8 mm. latis, anguste attenuatis, conspicue costatis, inter 
nervos inconspicue septatis, planis, marginibus laevibus; spicae 
paucae vel plures longissime angusteque pedunculatae, ut videtur 
pendulae, terminalis mascula, laterales femineae vel pro parte 
androgynae, lineares, plerumque 3-4.5 cm. longae, laxe et subremote 
floriferae, bracteis filiformibus erectis brevibus basi longe vaginatis, 
vaginis usque ad 1 cm. longis purpureo-brunneis; glumae pallide 
brunnescentes vel brunneo-virides oblongo-ovales ca. 2.5 mm. 
longae, apice abrupte contractae et arista usque ad 5 mm. longa sed 
vulgo breviore terminatae; perigynia fusiformi-lanceolata virides- 
centia in sectione compresso-triangularia, manifeste nervata glabra, 
3.5 mm. longa 1 mm. lata, in rostrum sensim attenuata; stigmata 
3. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Along stream at Canana, 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. about 2,500 meters, July 18, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 49055 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

The type specimen is in poor condition for study, being in 
advanced fruit, but the plant is clearly different from any other 
species known from Central America or Mexico. Its relationship 
is with C. perlonga Fernald, of southern Mexico and Guatemala. 
It is noteworthy for its wide leaves, the foliage in general resembling 
that of Luzula gigantea. 

195 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Carex Steyermarkii Standl., sp. nov. Ut videtur caespitosa, 
culmis erectis crassiusculis ca. 50 cm. altis striatis laevibus; folia 
magna lataque numerosa atque conferta, ut videtur erecta usque 
ad 40 cm. longa, 16-24 mm. lata, plana, crassiuscula, in sicco pallide 
viridia, supra sublucida, subtus pallidiora, manifeste costata, subu- 
lato-acuminata, ad margines laevia, basi dilatata et vaginantia, 
prope vaginas intense brunneo-rubra; spicae numerosae inflores- 
centiam majusculam laxam efformantes, longe graciliter peduncu- 
latae, pendulae, androgynae, elongato-lineares, usque ad 6 cm. 
longae, laxiflorae, floribus infimis saepe remotis; glumae lanceolato- 
oblongae acutae, inconspicue mucronatae vel muticae, pallide 
sordide brunnescentes vel pallide viridi-brunneae; perigynia fusi- 
formi-lanceolata, ca. 5 mm. longa, paullo ultra 1 mm. lata, pallide 
sordido-brunnea, manifeste nervata, lucida, in rostrum brevem 
crassum erectum sensim angustata, in sectione obtuse triangularia; 
stigmata 3. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Sierra de los 
Cuchumatanes, Cerro Huitz, between Barillas and Mimanhuitz, 
alt. 1,600-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48542 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

The type specimen consists of a single much-weathered plant, 
in which it is difficult to determine the true characters of the spikes 
and the general form of the inflorescence. The species, however, is 
evidently a distinct one, outstanding because of its extremely broad 
leaves, among the widest to be found in the genus. It is believed 
that the relationship is with C. perlonga Fernald and C. huehueteca, 
described above. 

PALMAE 

Chamaedorea aequalis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Caudex 
erectus 3-4.5 m. altus 1.5-2 cm. crassus laevis, internodiis superiori- 
bus 11-15 cm. longis; frondis vagina oblique aperta ca. 9 cm. longa 
prominenter costata; petiolus ca. 19 cm. longus gracilis 3 mm. 
crassus; lamina 37 cm. longa et 23 cm. lata vel ultra; pinnae in 
utroque latere 17 vel ultra tenues concolores sublucidae regulariter 
dispositae, apicales inferioribus non latiores basi connatae anguste 
lanceolatae, non sigmoideae 13-24 cm. longae 1.5-3 cm. latae, longe 
aequaliter attenuato-acuminatae, basin angustam versus sensim 
angustatae, plerumque 3-nerviae, nervis secundariis numerosis pri- 
mariis fere aequalibus; pedunculus inflorescentiae femineae gracilis 
adscendens vel suberectus 21-30 cm. longus vix ultra 2 mm. crassus; 
spathae 4-5 tubulosae imbricatae, intermediis ca. 12 cm. longis, 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 197 

adpressae ca. 5 mm. diam. ; spadicis pars ramosa 10-13 cm. longa et 
aequilata, ramis ca. 10 erecto-patentibus, infimis furcatis, superiori- 
bus simplicibus 9-10.5 cm. longis rubris gracilibus, insertionibus vix 
excavatis, fructibus in spira laxa insertis remotis; corolla sub fructu 
explanata, petalis late ovatis ca. 2 mm. longis ecostatis subapiculatis, 
calyce persistente explanato vix ultra 2 mm. lato, lobis 3 late rotunda- 
tis; fructus globosus in sicco 6 mm. diam. basi et apice late rotun- 
datus, semine fere aequilongo pallide griseo-brunneo. Guatemala: 
Dept. Huehuetenango: In forest of Liquidambar on slopes bordering 
a moist ravine, Cerro Negro, 2 miles west of Las Palmas, Sierra de 
los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,600-2,000 meters, August 31, 1942, Julian 
A. Steyermark 51666 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. Solola: 
Volcan de Atitlan, south-facing slopes, alt. 1,700-3,800 meters, 
June, 1942, Steyermark 47411. 

This plant bears some resemblance to C. Schippii Burret, which 
is rather common in the Atlantic slopes and lowlands of Guatemala 
and British Honduras, but that species has leaves of quite different 
appearance, their pinnae having only a single secondary nerve 
between the more prominent primary nerves. C. aequalis is a rather 
small and slender plant. One specimen bears a section of the caudex 
with two nodes, each of which produces a pistillate spadix. The 
spadices apparently are borne well below the leaves. 

Chamaedorea Aguilariana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Caudex gracilis viridis 1-3-metralis ca. 8 mm. crassus conspicue 
annulatus, internodiis plerumque 1.5-2 cm. longis; vagina 9-10 
cm. longa 1-1.5 cm. lata, apice obliqua; petiolus gracilis 12-17 
cm. longus; lamina ambitu oblonga, vulgo 30-40 cm. longa, rhachi 
gracillima; pinnae in quoque latere 4-5 regulariter dispositae alter- 
nae, apicales confluentes 18-20 cm. longae vulgo 6-7 cm. latae 
longe falcato-acuminatae, sequentes breviores et angustiores plerum- 
que 11-19 cm. longae et 2.5-5 cm. latae, anguste falcato-acuminatae, 
sigmoideae, tenues, subtus paullo pallidiores, ca. 5-nerviae, nervis 
secundariis singulis primariis multo gracilioribus; spadices in axillis 
foliorum nascentes, masculorum pedunculo 8-20 cm. longo gracili 
patente vel recurvo, spathis 3-4 tubulosis tenuibus non arete adpres- 
sis 6-7 mm. diam. apice acutis; spadicis rami vulgo 11-14 in tota 
longitudine floriferi penduli ca. 12 cm. longi, floribus breviter immer- 
sis dense insertis 2.5 mm. altis pallide viridibus, calyce minuto 
brevissime 3-lobo, lobis latissime rotundatis; petala in sicco fusca 
leviter striata, apice subcoherentia vel libera, ovali-ovata; antherae 
oblongae; spadicis feminei pedunculus 22-44 cm. longus gracilis 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

suberectus, partis ramosae rhachi vix ad 6.5 cm. longa, ramis 5-9 
gracilibus subflexuosis 10-17 cm. longis, floribus remote spiraliter 
insertis, fere ut in spadice masculo, petalis insigniter striato-costu- 
latis, ramis pallide aurantiacis; fructus globosus, immaturus ca. 
6 mm. diam., basi et apice rotundatus. Guatemala: Dept. Quezal- 
tenango: Damp wooded quebrada, along old road between Finca 
Pirineos and Patzulin, alt. 1,200-1,400 meters, February 9, 1941, 
Paul C. Standley 86890 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); along Rio 
Samala, between Santa Maria de Jesus and Calahuache", 1,200 
meters, Steyermark 33849; between Finca Pirineos and Finca Soledad, 
lower southern slopes of Volcan de Santa Maria, 1,300 meters, 
Steyermark 33505. Dept. San Marcos: Volcan de Tajumulco, above 
Finca El Porvenir, 1,300-1,500 meters, Steyermark 37179; Rio 
Mopa, below Rodeo, 600 meters, Standley 68759. Dept. Suchite- 
pe"quez: Southwestern slopes of Volcan Zunil, between Finca Monte- 
cristo and Finca Asturias, 1,300 meters, Steyermark 35278. Dept. 
Chimaltenango: Near Sibaja, 1,050 meters, Standley 62282. Dept. 
Escuintla: Below Las Lajas, 900-1,200 meters, Standley 64814. 
Dept. Santa Rosa: Near El Molino, 600 meters, Standley 78512. 
Local names "pacaya" (given to all species of Chamaedorea') and 
"molinillo," the latter in reference to the fact that the base of 
the stem with the cluster of stiff roots is used for stirring coffee 
and other hot liquids. This plant, which is rather common along 
the Pacific bocacosta of Guatemala the coffee region is related 
apparently to C. pulchra Burret, which has much larger leaves, their 
numerous segments much longer and narrower, the terminal ones 
little if at all broader than those just below them. C. Aguilariana 
bears a superficial resemblance to C. neurochlamys Burret, a very 
different plant, however, with narrow, conspicuously curved fruits, 
to which 0. F. Cook has given (but not technically published) the 
name Docanthe alba. The present species is dedicated to Don Jose* 
Ignacio Aguilar, formerly Director of the Finca Nacional La Aurora, 
in the outskirts of Guatemala, to whom we are indebted for a great 
many favors and for a large amount of information regarding Guate- 
malan plants, as well as for extensive collections of herbarium 
specimens that have provided many new department records for the 
flora of Guatemala. 

Chamaedorea brachypoda Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Caudex gracilis pallide viridis ca. metralis 6-7 mm. crassus, inter- 
nodiis 6-6.5 cm. longis; folii vagina ca. 6 cm. longa 8 mm. lata 
tubulosa striato-nervia apice obliqua; petiolus gracilis 9-10 cm. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 199 

longus; lamina simplex ca. 25 cm. longa et aequilata basi cuneato- 
acuta, rhachi ca. 12 cm. longa, nervis primariis utroque latere ca. 
13 utrinque prominentibus, nervis secundariis singulis primariis 
multo tenuioribus, lamina profunde biloba, lobis acutis vel breviter 
acuminatis angulo recto vel paullo angustiore divergentibus ca. 
16 cm. longis et prope basin 10 cm. latis, fere concoloribus; spadices 
longe infra folia nascentes, pedunculo 3-5 cm. longo gracili sed 
rigido adscendente; spathae 6 brevissimae, infimis vix ultra 8 mm. 
longis supremis usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, 4 mm. diam. apice acutis vel 
acuminatis; spadicis masculi rami 5-6 gracillimi laxiflori 9-10.5 cm. 
longi, floribus vix subimmersis pallide luteis; calyx vix 2 mm. latus 
brevissime 3-lobus vel subinteger sub flore explanatus; petala libera 
2.5-3 mm. longa ovato-ovalia incurva et apice conniventia; antherae 
ovales breves; pistillodium columnare apice anguste disciformi- 
dilatatum; spadix femineus masculo similis (bene evolutus non 
visus), ramis 5-6 et 5-6 cm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Wet 
forest, between Bananera and La Presa, base of Sierra del Mico, 
alt. 150 meters or lower, April 9, 1940, Julian A. Steyermark 39185 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.); between Virginia and Lago de Izabal, 
100 meters or lower, April 4, 1940, Steyermark 38749. 

Local name "pacaya." This is a close relative of C. Ernesti- 
Augusti Wendland, but in that species the peduncles are mostly 
20-25 cm. long, and the pistillate inflorescences are simple, the 
flower-bearing portion much shorter than the peduncle. 

Chamaedorea carchensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta 
acaulis; folia magna, vagina indurata 12 cm. longa fere 2 cm. crassa 
superne angustata; petiolus 1 m. longus vel paullo ultra anguste 
sulcatus fere 1 cm. crassus; pinnae subaequales regulariter insertae 
alternantes utroque latere ca. 15 lineari-lanceolatae, terminales vix 
latiores vel in foliis juvenilibus sequentibus duplo latioribus, pin- 
nis medialibus ca. 40 cm. longis et 3.5 cm. latis rectis aequaliter 
attenuato-acuminatis, basin versus sensim angustatis, basi ipsa 
10-15 mm. lata paullo indurata, pinnis conspicue 1-nerviis, nervis 2 
teneris submarginalibus percursis, nervis intermediis tenerrimis 
inconspicuis; inflorescentiae femineae radicales vel saltern e basi 
plantae nascentes erectae, pedunculo 34-50 cm. longo crassiusculo 
apicem versus 4 mm. crasso; spathae 6 imbricatae adpressae ca. 
8-10 mm. diam., infimae 3.5 cm. tantum longae, supremae ca. 12 
cm. longae apice obliquae, obtusae submucronatae dense striato- 
nerviae; spadicis feminei pars ramosa 20-26 cm. longa 7-8 cm. lata, 
rhachi crassiuscula 14-18 cm. longa, ramis 18-25 crassiusculis 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

viridibus arcuato-erectis sparsifloris; flores vix immersi, alveolis 
1-1.2 mm. longis orbicularibus vel late ovalibus; calyx ca. 2 mm. 
latus incrassatus 3-lobus, lobis rotundo-ovatis obtusissimis; petala 
2.5 mm. longa rotundo-ovata obtusa in statu fructifero incrassata; 
fructus juvenilis vix 5 mm. longus ovalis vel late oblongus apice 
rotundatus. Guatemala: Dept. Alta Verapaz: Wet rocky forest 
along banks of Rio Carcha, between Coban and San Pedro Carcha, 
alt. about 1,350 meters, March, 1941, Paul C. Standley 90160 (type 
in Herb. Field Mus.); also (juvenile plants) nos. 90161 and 90163. 
We are unable to suggest a relationship for this species, which is 
marked by large leaves with numerous narrow straight pinnae, and 
especially by the form of the pistillate inflorescence, which arises 
from the base of the plant and has numerous, almost erect, rather 
stout branches. The very young plants have simple, deeply bifid 
leaves. The species grows in the dense, wet, very rich forest along 
the Rio Carcha, one of the few places close to Coban where one may 
form some idea of the original forest covering of this part of Guate- 
mala, now so generally denuded for agricultural purposes. 

Chamaedorea digitata Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Caudex 
gracilis viridis erectus usque ad 1 m. altus, 5-7 mm. diam., internodiis 
inaequalibus brevibus vel aliquanto elongatis; folia inter minora, 
vagina 16-21 cm. longa tubulosa apice obliqua 6-13 mm. crassa 
prominenter costato-nervia, vaginis interdum 8 cm. tantum longis, 
petiolo gracili vulgo 3-6 cm. longo, laminis plerumque 17-28 cm. 
longis; pinnae regulariter dispositae utroque latere 5-7 tenues subtus 
paullo pallidiores lanceolatae vel late lanceolatae sigmoideae 6-11 
cm. longae 2.5-3 cm. latae, anguste attenuato-acuminatae, basin 
versus angustatae 4-6-nerviae, nervis primariis gracillimis sed 
prominentibus, secondariis inter paria primariorum pluribus tener- 
rimis; inflorescentiae radicales in plantis acaulescentibus vel in 
elatioribus infra folia nascentes, pedunculo gracillimo 18-30 cm. 
longo 1.5 mm. crasso; spathae 4-5 tubulosae brunnescentes striato- 
nerviae 3-4 mm. diam. apice subacutae adpressae; rhachis spadicis 
masculi fere nulla 5-6 mm. tantum longa, ramis (in planta unica 
visa) 4 gracilibus remotifloris 7.5-9 cm. longis, floribus paullo 
immersis depresso-globosis, calyce 1.7 mm. lato, brevissime lobato, 
lobis truncatis; petala rotundo-ovata obtusa ecostata valvata; 
spadix femineus parvus, ramis 3-6 crassiusculis arcuato-erectis 
3.5-6.5 cm. longis remotifloris, floribus breviter immersis, alveolis 
oblongis vel ovalibus 1.5 mm. longis; calyx brevissime trilobus 2.5 
mm. latus, petalis ovato-rotundis saepe latioribus quam longis, 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 201 

paullo ultra 2 mm. longis dorso subtrinerviis; fructus immaturus 5-6 
mm. longus subglobosus vel ovali-globosus, basi et apice rotundatus. 
Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: In Liquidambar forest on 
slopes bordering a moist ravine, Cerro Negro, 2 miles east of Las 
Palmas, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,600-2,000 meters, August 
31, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 51683 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 
Dept. San Marcos: Volcan de Tajumulco, above Finca El Porvenir, 
1,400-1,700 meters, Steyermark 37386. Dept. Solola: Southern 
slopes of Volcan de Atitlan, 1,700-3,800 meters, Steyermark 47383. 
Dept. El Progreso: Sierra de las Minas, hills north of Finca Piamonte, 
toward summit of Volcan de Santa Luisa, 2,400-3,000 meters, 
Steyermark 43493. Dept. Alta Verapaz : Dense wet forest, mountains 
along road between Tactic and the divide on the road to Tamahu, 
1,600 meters, Standley 91426. 

A small and neat plant, notable for its short and broad sigmoid 
pinnae with very long and narrow tips, also for the very small pistil- 
late inflorescence, with few branches. 

Chamaedorea fusca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Palma 
elata erecta 1.5-3 m. alta, caudice 1-1.5 cm. crasso, internodiis 
inaequalibus 4-15 cm. longis; folia majuscula, vagina ca. 20 cm. 
longa apice obliqua prominenter costata; petiolus ca. 35 cm. longus 
crassiusculus usque ad 7 mm. crassus; pinnae crassiusculae regulariter 
insertae alternantes vel interdum suboppositae subtus paullo pal- 
lidiores in utroque latere 5-7, rhombeo-lanceolatae vel late lanceo- 
latae sigmoideae, medianae 22-35 cm. longae 3.5-10 cm. latae, longe 
angusteque caudato-acuminatae vel attenuato-acuminatae, basin 
versus sensim angustatae, basi ipsa usque 1.5 cm. lata, plerumque 
5-nerviae, nervis primariis prominentibus, secundariis multo tenuiori- 
bus numerosis, pinnis terminalibus sequentibus brevioribus et vulgo 
angustioribus; inflorescentiae femineae infra folia nascentes in sicco 
fere nigrae, pedunculo 20-27 cm. longo apicem versus 4 mm. crasso, 
rhachi 10-19 cm. longa; spadicis feminei rami simplices vel infimi 
furcati, 23 vel pauciores, arcuati et patentes vel adscendentes 
crassiusculi laxiflori, in vivo virides in sicco nigrescentes; flores laxe 
inserti vix immersi, alveolis suborbicularibus fere 2 mm. longis, in 
sicco nigrescentes; spathae vulgo 5, infimae 2-3 cm. longae, superi- 
ores ca. 10 cm. longae, tubulosae 6-9 mm. diam., striato-nerviae 
apice obliquae; calyx 2.5 mm. latus breviter trilobus, lobis late 
rotundatis; petala crassa enervia 2 mm. longa rotundo-ovata 
obtusissima; fructus ellipsoideus in sicco 10 mm. longus 6-7 mm. 
latus fere symmetricus apice basique paullo angustatus; semen 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

immaturum ellipsoideum 7 mm. longum 4 mm. latum. Guatemala: 
Dept. Izabal: Between Bananera and La Presa, Sierra del Mico, 
alt. 300 meters or lower, March 28, 1940, Julian A. Steyermark 
38123 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. Alta Verapaz: Vicinity of 
Cubilgiiitz, alt. 300-350 meters, Steyermark 44380. Mexico: 
Monterrey, Campeche, January, 1932, C. L. Lundell 1235. 

Outstanding characters of this Chamaedorea are the rather large 
leaves with very broad pinnae whose form reminds one almost of 
some species of Zamia, and the very large pistillate spadices, whose 
numerous, rather widely spreading branches are blackish in the dry 
state. The fruits, also, are noteworthy for their elongate form, those 
of the majority of local species being globose or nearly so. 

Chamaedorea nubium Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Caudex 
gracilis erectus 1.5-2.5 m. altus 8-10 mm. crassus, internodiis 
supremis brevibus, inferioribus usque 9.5 cm. longis; folia simplicia, 
vagina ca. 30 cm. longa tubulosa apice obliqua laxe adpressa ca. 
13 mm. diam., striato-nervia, petiolo gracili 19 cm. longo; lamina 
ca. 45 cm. longa profunde bifida, rhachi ca. 15 cm. longa, segmentis 
latere superiore 33 cm. longis falcato-acuminatis integris vel sub- 
integris, nervis primariis utroque latere ca. 14 prominentibus, 
secundariis obscuris, basi laminae cuneato-acuta; pedunculi spadicis 
feminei recurvi 25-27 cm. longi apicem versus 2.5 mm. crassi, 
spathis (bene evolutis non visis) anguste tubulosis striato-nerviis 
3-4 mm. crassis apice acutis adpressis; spadix fructifer ca. 15 cm. 
longus, rhachi 4 cm. longa vel interdum magis elongata, ramis 5 vel 
ultra crassiusculis aliquanto undulatis usque ad 10.5 cm. longis 
adscendentibus vel suberectis spiraliter laxifloris, aurantiacis, 
floribus subimmersis, alveolis ca. 2.5 mm. longis; calyx brevissimus 
brevissime 3-lobus, lobis latissimis subtruncatis; petala in statu 
fructifero incrassata semiorbicularia apice rotundata latiora quam 
longa 2.5 mm. longa; fructus late ovalis vel obovoideo-ovalis ca. 
10 mm. longus et 7 jnm. latus basi et apice rotundatus. Guate- 
mala: Dept. El Progreso: Sierra de las Minas, hills north of Finca 
Piamonte, toward the summit of Volcan de Santa Luisa, in cloud 
forest, alt. about 2,900 meters, February 5, 1942, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 43583a (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. Huehuetenango : 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz 
and Yulhuitz, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, Steyermark 48612. 

The second collection cited is in poor condition but probably 
referable here. This is a relative of C. Ernesti-Augusti Wendland, 
but that species has simple pistillate spadices. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 203 

Chamaedorea Pachecoana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Palma nana vix ultra 60 cm. alta, acaulis vel subacaulis, caudice vix 
ad 8 cm. longo, ca. 7 mm. diam., densissime annulate, internodiis 
vix ad 6 mm. longis; folia parva pinnatisecta plerumque 30-36 cm. 
longa et 8-13 cm. lata, vagina ca. 5 cm. longa usque ad basin fissa 
laxa striato-nervia, petiolo gracillimo 7-17 cm. longo; pinnae tenues 
late rhombeo-lanceolatae vel oblongo-lanceolatae 4.5-8 cm. longae 
1.5-2 cm. latae vel interdum paullo majores, longe angusteque 
falcato-acuminatae, sigmoideae, basi arcuato-cuneatae, basi ipsa 
angusta, regulariter dispositae alternae vel suboppositae, terminales 
coalitae, interdum sequentibus paullo longiores et latiores, omnes 
3-nerviae, nervis secundariis numerosis inconspicuis; pedunculi 
gracillimi plerumque 11-23 cm. longi supra vix ultra 1 mm. crassi; 
spathae 5-6 angustissime tubulosae vix 2 mm. diam. arete adpressae, 
superiores 5-7.5 cm. longae apice obliquae; spadix masculus 7-11 cm. 
longus, rhachi brevissima, ramis 2-5 usque ad basin densifloris, 
floribus plurimis viridescenti-luteis subimmersis 3 mm. longis, calyce 
2.5 mm. lato breviter trilobo; petala valvata apice incurva late ovata 
obtusa enervia, antheris oblongo-ovatis obtusis; spadix femineus 
simplex et 5-10 cm. longus vel saepe furcatus et aequilongus, ramis 
sparse paucifloris, crassiusculis rectis, floribus spiraliter dispositis 
subimmersis, rhachi rubra vel aurantiaca; calyx 2 mm. latus breviter 
trilobus, lobis late rotundatis; petala rotundo-ovata 2 mm. longa 
obtusissima leviter striato-nervia; fructus maturus niger globosus 
vel ovali-globosus 6-8 mm. longus basi et apice rotundatus symmetri- 
cus. Guatemala: Dept. Guatemala: Cultivated in the garden of 
Don Mariano Pacheco Herrarte, Guatemala; said to come from 
Dept. Totonicapan, but probably from some other part of the 
Occidente; January 20, 1939, Paul C. Standley 63104 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). Dept. Quezaltenango : Along old road between Finca 
Pirineos and Patzulin, alt. 1,200-1,400 meters, Standley 86596, 
86654, 86804, 86924, 87030, 87027, 87009, 87017, 87011, 87030; 
Finca Pirineos, below Santa Maria de Jesus, 1,350 meters, Standley 
68198; Quebrada San Geronimo, Finca Pirineos, 1,300-2,000 meters, 
Steyermark 33333. 

Local name "pacaya." This is easily the smallest of all the known 
palms of Guatemala, and one of the most attractive. Although C. 
elegans Mart, blooms when even smaller, it soon attains a much 
greater size, becoming 2 meters high or more. For pot culture C. 
elegans is probably more desirable, since it is more slender and 
graceful, but C. Pachecoana is a much more leafy and denser plant, 
and probably would not soon become lank and ungainly, as C. elegans 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

does after a short period of cultivation in pots. The plant here 
described is well known in Guatemala, and occasionally is seen in 
pots about patios. It is common in the moist forest of the lower 
reaches of the Samala Valley. It is somewhat surprising that it was 
not found long ago by some of the collectors in search of palms for 
introduction into Europe, but it does not closely resemble any 
Mexican palm of which we have seen a representation. Rather 
strangely, the Guatemalan Chamaedoreas have all, so far as they 
are localized, with one exception, been described from the Coban 
region, and one dependent upon literature alone would be justified 
in supposing that Chamaedoreas were not found in other parts of 
the country. As a matter of fact, they are quite as plentiful, if not 
more so, in the forests of the Pacific slope, especially in the areas 
devoted to coffee culture. 

Chamaedorea quezalteca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Palma 
gracilis ca. 1.5 m. alta, caudice fere 1 cm. diam. lucido, internodiis 
1.5-3 cm. longis; vagina ca. 17.5 cm. longa tubulosa fere 1.5 cm. 
crassa tenuiter striato-nervia, petiolo gracili elongate 2.5 mm. crasso; 
folia pinnatisecta, pinnis utroque latere ca. 16 regulariter dispositis 
alternantibus tenuibus utrinque intense viridibus, lineari-lanceolatis 
vix vel non sigmoideis, majoribus medialibus ca. 19 cm. longis et 
2 cm. latis longe attenuato-acuminatis, basin versus sensim angusta- 
tis, plerumque 5-nerviis, nervis secundariis tenerrimis obscuris, vel 
3-nerviis cum nervo secundario singulo prominente interposito, 
superioribus 9 cm. tantum longis et vix 1 cm. latis; pedunculus 
gracillimus usque ad 25 cm. longus apice 1.5 mm. crassus, spathis 
(perfectis non visis) 3 mm. crassis tubulosis apice obliquis; spadix 
femineus simplex ca. 8 cm. longus spiraliter laxeque pauciflorus, 
rhachi gracillima subflexuosa, floribus distantibus non immersis, 
alveolis late ovalibus ca. 1.5 mm. longis; calyx sub fructu explanatus 
2.5 mm. latus breviter trilobus, lobis late rotundatis vel subtruncatis; 
petala in statu fructifero incrassata explanata ovato-rotundata vel 
latissime ovata, interdum latiora quam longa, ca. 3 mm. longa 
interdum 4 mm. lata, apice late rotundata enervia; fructus imma- 
turus subglobosus symmetricus ca. 6 mm. diam. basi et apice late 
rotundatus. Guatemala: Dept. Quezaltenango : Dense damp mixed 
mountain forest, along old road between Finca Pirineos and Patzulin, 
alt. 1,200-1,400 meters, February 9, 1941, Paul C. Standley 87159 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Apparently this is a rare plant, since we have made only one 
collection of it. It is related to C. adscendens (Dammer) Burret, 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 205 

which is confined to the Atlantic watershed of Guatemala, and has 
numerous, evident and somewhat prominent secondary nerves 
between the primary nerves of the leaflets. 

Chamaedorea Rojasiana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Palma 
gracilis erecta interdum acaulis, vulgo 1-1.5 m. alta, caudice 6-8 mm. 
crasso, internodiis 5.5-7 cm. longis vel interdum multo brevioribus; 
vagina 7-12 cm. longa 8-14 mm. crassa apice obliqua prominenter 
striato-nervia, petiolo gracili 5-20 cm. longo; folia inter minora pin- 
natisecta, pinnis tenuibus fere concoloribus vel subtus paullo pallidi- 
oribus, utroque latere 2-4 regulariter dispositis insigniter sigmoideis, 
terminalibus 2 coalitis 19-25 cm. longis 5.5-7 cm. latis, sequentibus 
brevioribus ca. 3 cm. latis, infimis ca. 8 cm. longis atque 2 cm. latis, 
omnibus falcato-acuminatis, terminalibus 7-8-nerviis, inferioribus 
plerumque 3-nerviis, nervis secondariis paucis tenuibus; pedunculi 
11-20 cm. longi gracillimi, apice vix 2 mm. crassi, adscendentes vel 
paten tes; spathae 3-4 anguste tubulosae adpressae vix ultra 3 mm. 
crassae striato-nerviae; spadix masculus simplex vel saepe e ramis 
2-3 compositus, ramis usque ad basin densifloris 10-14.5 cm. longis 
4 mm. crassis, floribus sat profunde immersis, calyce 2.5 mm. lato 
fere truncate obscure trilobo; petala apice valvata striato-nervia 
ca. 2 mm. longa; spadix femineus simplex vel e ramis 2 compositus, 
ramis aurantiacis 7-9 cm. longis remote spiraliter subpaucifloris, 
floribus profunde immersis, alveolis oblongis vel ovalibus 2.5 mm. 
longis, calyce brevissimo obscure trilobo; petala irregulare rotundata 
prominenter striato-nervia; fructus primo aurantiacus maturitate 
purpureo-niger subglobosus vel ovali-ellipsoideus in sicco 7-9 mm. 
longus, basi et apice rotundatus. Guatemala: Dept. Quezaltenango : 
On forested banks, Quebrada San Geronimo, Finca Pirineos, lower 
southern slopes of Volcan de Santa Maria, between Santa Maria de 
Jesus and Calahuache", alt. 1,300-2,000 meters, January 1-2, 1940, 
Julian A. Steyermark 33479 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); between 
Finca Pirineos and Patzulin, alt. 1,300-1,500 meters, Steyermark 
33649; along old road between Finca Pirineos and Patzulin, alt. 
1,200-1,400 meters, Standley 86937, 86933, 86947, and 86713; 
Finca Pirineos, alt. 1,350 meters, Standley 68187, 68308, 68340. 
Dept. San Marcos: Volcan de Tajumulco, Finca El Porvenir, alt. 
1,300-1,500 meters, Steyermark 37526, 37527; Cerro de Mono above 
Finca El Porvenir, alt. 1,400-1,700 meters, Steyermark 37387; Loma 
Trocodona, Finca El Porvenir, Steyermark 37527. Dept. Huehue- 
tenango: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, near Maxbal, alt. 1,500 
meters, Steyermark 48856. Dept. Solola: Northern slopes of Volcan 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

de Atitlan, alt. 2,600 meters, Steyermark 47355. Dept. Suchite- 
pe"quez: Southwestern slopes of Volcan de Zunil, alt. 1,200 meters, 
Steyermark 35247, 35248. 

Known locally as "pacaya," or sometimes "molinillo." Related, 
apparently, to C. oreophila Mart., of southern Mexico, because of 
the form of the inflorescences. That species has much more numer- 
ous leaf segments, the middle ones being relatively much narrower. 
C. Rojasiana is named for Professor Ulises Rojas, Director of the 
Jardin Botanico of Guatemala, on and near whose finca, Pirineos, 
many of the specimens were collected. 

Chamaedorea Skutchii Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Caudex 
gracilis 2.5 m. altus ca. 8 mm. crassus, internodiis 2.5-3 cm. longis; 
petiolus 22 cm. longus vel paullo ultra, lamina pinnatisecta; pinnae 
utroque latere 8, tenues, subtus paullo pallidiores, terminales 27 cm. 
longae et fere 8 cm. latae, falcato-acuminatae, latere exteriore 
inconspicue crenato-serratae, 7-nerviae, sequentes approximatae 
regulariter dispositae alternantes 15-21 cm. longae 13-16 mm. latae 
non sigmoideae subfalcate longiattenuatae 3-nerviae, nervis secun- 
dariis tenerrimis; inflorescentia feminea infra folia nascens, pedunculo 
gracili ca. 21 cm. longo apice fere 4 mm. crasso; spadix ca. 14 cm. 
longus, rhachi ca. 3 cm. longa, ramis 7 simplicibus crassis aurantiacis 
spiraliter remoteque floriferis, floribus breviter immersis, alveolis 
ovalibus 2.5 mm. longis; calyx ca. 3 mm. latus brevissime trilobus, 
lobis late rotundatis; petala 2.5 mm. longa in statu fructifero incras- 
sata ovato-rotundata sub fructu explanata; fructus niger ovali- 
globosus in sicco 10 mm. longus 8 mm. latu's symmetricus basi et 
apice rotundatus; semen ovali-globosum 8 mm. longum. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Quezaltenango : Volcan de Zunil, alt. 2,400 meters, 
August 4, 1934, Alexander F. Skutch 935 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

According to the collector, the plants bear usually 4 or 5 leaves. 
The plant is probably a local or rare one, since it has not appeared 
among the numerous palm collections made in the same general 
region. It has no particularly outstanding characters, although the 
broad uppermost pinnae are rather distinctive, and this particular 
combination of fruit and leaf characters is not matched in any other 
Guatemalan species of the genus. 

Chamaedorea stenocarpa Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta 
acaulis nana ca. 60 cm. alta; folia 5 vel plura, 60 cm. longa vel 
breviora, vagina 4-4.5 cm. tan turn longa sursum angustata striato- 
nervia, petiolo gracili 12-20 cm. longo, rhachi 14-27 cm. longa 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 207 

anguste marginata, lamina pinnatisecta 14-32 cm. longa 10-20 cm. 
lata; pinnae tenues concolores utroque latere 10-14 regulariter dis- 
positae anguste oblongo-lanceolatae aliquanto sigmoideae, mediales 
5.5-12 cm. longae 1.2-2.5 cm. latae, attenuato-acuminatae, basin 
versus angustatae, basi ipsa ca. 8 mm. lata, 3-nerviae, nervis primariis 
tenuibus prominentibus, secundariis inter paria singulis tenerrimis 
et inconspicuis; pinnae terminales 5-7.5 cm. longae 8-15 mm. latae 
2-3-nerviae; pedunculus femineus gracilis erectus 18 cm. longus 
apice 1.5 mm. crassus; spathae 3 vel ultra anguste tubulosae fere 
3 mm. diam. arete adpressae apice obliquae promi^enter nervosae; 
spadix crassiusculus rectus 4 cm. longus intense aurantiacus, sub- 
densiflorus, floribus vix immersis spiraliter insertis, alveolis ellipticis 
1.8 mm. longis; calyx minutus brevissime trilobus; petala enervia fere 
3 mm. longa rotundo-ovata obtusa; fructus immaturus oblongus in 
sicco 8 mm. longus 4 mm. latus apice obtusus vel rotundatus, basi 
obtusus. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Dense wet forest, Cerro San 
Gil, alt. 650-900 meters, December 25, 1941, Julian A. Steyermark 
41893 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

One of the smallest of Guatemalan palms, noteworthy for the 
numerous, very thin, deep green pinnae, distinctly sigmoid in outline, 
and the very short, simple spadix, bearing numerous oblong fruits. 

Chamaedorea stricta Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta 
acaulis; folia vulgo 2-3 erecta subrigida concoloria vel subtus paullo 
pallidiora, vagina 8-27 cm. longa sursum attenuata striato-nervia 
sublaxa, petiolo 28-35 cm. longo usque ad 7 mm. crasso; lamina 
26-60 cm. longa 13-23 cm. lata, basi cuneato-angustata, apice pro- 
funde bifida, rhachi 14-30 cm. longa, lobis longe acuminatis fere 
erectis, nervis primariis utroque latere 12-14 prominentibus, nervis 
secundariis numerosis tenerrimis inconspicuis; pedunculus radicalis 
erectus gracilis sed subrigidus 80-100 cm. longus, apice 2 mm. diam. ; 
spathae 7-9 anguste tubulosae, arete adpressae, pallide virides 
tenerrime nervosae, infimae 7 cm. tantum longae, mediales 11-28 cm. 
longae ca. 4 mm. diam. apice acuto obliquae; spadix masculus ca. 
24 cm. longus, rhachi ca. 3.5 cm. longa, ramis 7 fere ad basin densi- 
floris gracilibus et subflexuosis, floribus sat profunde immersis, 
alveolis anguste ellipticis 2.5 mm. longis; calyx brevissimus 2.5 mm. 
latus brevissime trilobus; petala enervia libera late ovata obtusa 
fere 4 mm. longa erecta; spadicis feminei rami 3-4 erecti crassiusculi 
8-14.5 cm. longi, floribus remote spiraliter insertis, rhachi 1.5-3 cm. 
longa, rubro-aurantiaca, floribus vix immersis, alveolis ellipticis vel 
ovalibus 2.5 mm. longis; calyx 3.5 mm. longus sub fructu explanatus 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

brevissime trilobus; petala enervia fere orbicularia subapiculata ca. 
3 mm. longa et aequilata; fructus subglobosus 8 mm. longus et fere 
aequilatus basi et apice late rotundatus; semen globosum albido- 
brunneum fructu vix minus. Guatemala: Dept. San Marcos: 
Volcan de Tajumulco, on narrow dry ridge above Finca El Porvenir, 
up Cerro de Mono, alt. 1,400-1,700 meters, March 9, 1940, Julian A, 
Steyermark 37381 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); above Finca El 
Porvenir, between Todos Santos Chiquitos and Loma de la Paloma, 
alt. 1,400-1,700 meters, Steyermark 37252. 

Among the few species with simple leaves, this is outstanding in 
the greatly elongate, stiffly erect, radical inflorescences. In the genus 
Chamaedorea such elongation of the peduncles is very unusual and 
when they are much elongate, they usually are spreading or even 
pendent. 

Chamaedorea vulgata Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Palma 
elata, erecta, caudice vulgo 1.5-4.5 m. alto 1-2 cm. crasso viridi con- 
spicue annulate, internodiis 4-6.5 cm. longis; folia magna pinnati- 
secta, vagina ca. 26 cm. longa atque 1-1.5 cm. crassa adpressa striato- 
nervia, petiolo ca. 55 cm. longo recto 7-9 mm. crasso; pinnae utroque 
latere ca. 24 regulariter dispositae alternantes tenues intense virides 
concolores lanceolato-lineares, 27-55 cm. longae 3-7 cm. latae, non 
sigmoideae, longe attenuato-acuminatae, basin versus sensim 
angustatae, basi ipsa 6-22 mm. lata, prominenter 5-nerviae, nervis 
secundariis elevatis sed primariis tenuioribus numerosis, pinnis 
superioribus sensim decrescentibus, terminalibus interdum 9.5 cm. 
tantum longis sed vulgo multo longioribus, inferioribus aequilatis, 
infimis medialibus aliquanto brevioribus; inflorescentiae infra folia 
nascentes, pedunculis crassiusculis patentibus vel pendulis, interdum 
adscendentibus, 25-50 cm. longis superne 2-4 mm. crassis; spathae 
4-5 tubulosae subadpressae, 6-12 mm. latae, infimae 2.5 cm. longae, 
supremae 6-21 cm. longae acutae apice obliquae, prominenter striato- 
nerviae; spadicis masculi rhachis 1-2 cm. tantum longa, ramis 3-9 
gracilibus 15-20 cm. longis sat dense vel inferne sublaxe fere ad 
basin multifloris, ut videtur pendulis, floribus vix immersis, alveolis 
ovalibus fere 2 mm. longis; calyx 2.5-3 mm. latus brevissime trilobus, 
lobis latissime rotundatis; petala viridia enervia crassiuscula late 
ovata obtusa ca. 3 mm. longa libera; spadicis feminei rhachis 
crassa ca. 4 cm. vel usque ad 12 cm. longa, ramis 6 vel interdum 
usque 15 gracilibus aurantiacis, adscendentibus vel praesertim in 
statu fructifero pendulis, interdum flexuosis, alveolis late ovalibus 
vel suborbicularibus; calyx sub fructu explanatus brevissime trilobus; 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 209 

petala enervia late ovato-rotundata in statu fructifero ca. 4 mm. lata 
et fere aequilonga apiculata; fructus globosus symmetricus 9 mm. 
longus et aequilatus basi et apice late rotundatus; semen globosum. 
Guatemala: Dept. San Marcos: In forest, Volcan de Tajumulco, 
between Finca El Porvenir and Loma Corona, 9 miles northwest of 
El Porvenir, alt. 1,300-2,000 meters, March 14, 1940, Julian A. 
Steyermark 37735 (7 sheets; type in Herb. Field Mus.); Volcan de 
Tacana, between Canjula and La Union Juarez, alt. 2,000 meters or 
higher, Steyermark 36455. Dept. Quezaltenango: Between Finca 
Pirineos and Finca Soledad, lower southern slopes of Volcdn de 
Santa Maria, 1,300 meters, Steyermark 33514, 33518; Fuentes 
Georginas, western slope of Volcan de Zunil, 2,850 meters, Standley 
67344. Dept. Huehuetenango: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, near 
Maxbal, alt. 1,500 meters, Steyermark 48737; Sierra de los Cuchu- 
matanes, Cerro Canana, between Nucapuxlac and Canana, alt. 
2,500 meters, Steyermark 49018. Dept. Suchitepe*quez: Volcan de 
Santa Clara, between Finca Naranjo and the upper slopes, alt. 1,300 
meters or higher, Steyermark 46673. 

Local names are "pacaya," "cum" (in San Marcos), "pacaya 
chiquita," "pacaya de montana," and "bojon." The range of the 
species is apparently somewhat wider than is indicated by the speci- 
mens cited. This is a most unsatisfactory plant to name, and perhaps 
a new name for it is unnecessary, but we have not been able to iden- 
tify it with any other Guatemalan species or with any of those 
recorded for Mexico. The relationship is obviously with C. Tepeji- 
lote Liebm., a common Guatemalan species distinguished by its oval 
or oblong fruits, and often by its much greater size, although many 
of the wild plants of C. Tepejilote are no larger than those of C. vul- 
gata. It is possible, further, that two species really are represented 
by the collections here referred to C. vulgata, but this can not be 
decided until a larger number of collections is available for study. 
As here treated, C. vulgata is one of the most common small palms 
of the mountains of the Occidente of Guatemala. 

ARACEAE 

Anthurium Coibionii Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Sub- 
acaulescens, caudice brevissimo fere 2 cm. crasso; petioli crassi 
13-35 cm. longi 4-7 mm. crassi ca. 1 cm. infra apicem geniculati, 
geniculo longiore quam crasso; lamina in sicco coriacea, in vivo 
crassa atque carnosa, oblongo-lanceolata, 30-60 cm. longa 8-14 cm. 
lata, e basi ad apicem acutum longiattenuata, basi truncata vel 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

truncato-rotundata, manifeste 3-nervia, supra viridis, nervis mani- 
festis, subtus pallidior et glaucescens, costa crassissima elevata, 
nervis primariis lateralibus numerosis angulo angusto adscendentibus 
maxime elevatis, nervis intermediis venisque prominentibus laxe 
reticulatis; pedunculi ca. 35 cm. longi graciles vel crassi; spatha 
oblongo-lanceolata brunneo-viridis 7.5 cm. longa et 2 cm. lata vel 
brevior, obtusa atque cuspidata, basi valde amplexicaulis; spadix 
crasse 1.5 cm. longe stipitatus caudiformis, 5-12 cm. longus 6-9 mm. 
crassus, obtusus, sursum vix attenuatus, brunneo-purpurascens; 
ovaria subglobosa apice rotundata vel truncata. Guatemala: Dept. 
Zacapa: Oak-pine forest along upper reaches of Rio Sitio Nuevo, 
Sierra de las Minas, between Santa Rosalia and the first waterfall, 
alt. 1,200-1,500 meters, January 9, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
42212 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); cloud forest in ravine bordering 
Quebrada Alexandria, vicinity of Finca Alejandria, summit of Sierra 
de las Minas, 2,500 meters, October, 1939, Steyermark 29877. 

The plant was seen also in cultivation in the celebrated garden 
of Don Mariano Pacheco in Guatemala City (Standley 63109), where 
the plants were said to have been brought from Verapaz, probably 
from the Sierra de las Minas of Baja Verapaz. A. Coibionii is related 
obviously to A. parvispathum Hemsl., a common plant of the dry 
hills of Santa Rosa, Baja Verapaz, and confined, so far as known, 
to that region. A. parvispathum has leaves appreciably different in 
outline, and constantly so, and a sessile spadix. This species is 
dedicated to William Coibion, Jr., of Webster Groves, Missouri, 
who as general assistant accompanied the junior author on his first 
expedition to Guatemala and contributed much to the success of 
that expedition. 

Anthurium radicosum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
epiphytica, caudice gracili elongate 3-4 mm. crasso, internodiis 
7-12 cm. longis vel interdum brevibus, caulibus radices numerosas 
elongatas carnosas emittentibus; cataphylla caduca tenuia brunnea 
obtusa ca. 4 cm. longa et 1 cm. lata; petioli gracillimi 4-6 cm. longi 
breviter vaginati; lamina in sicco tenuis et fere membranacea anguste 
elliptico-oblonga 11-16 cm. longa 4-5 cm. lata, subabrupte acumi- 
nata, basi acuta vel breviter acuminata, in sicco fuscescens, subtus 
paullo pallidior et brunnescens, nervis primariis utroque latere ca. 
12 gracillimis et vix prominulis inconspicuis in nervum collectivum 
submarginalem conjunctis; pedunculi gracillimi ca. 10 cm. longi; 
spatha reflexa pallide viridis oblongo-ovata 1.5-2 cm. longa ca. 7 mm. 
lata, obtusa atque apiculata, basi amplexicaulis; spadix sessilis vel 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 211 

subsessilis gracilis ad anthesin 4.5 cm. longus 3 mm. crassus, sursum 
non angustatus, floribus subpaucis. Guatemala: Dept. Alta Vera- 
paz: Epiphytic on tree, along Rio Icvolay, north and northwest of 
Finca Cubilgiiitz to Quebrada Diablo, alt. 300-350 meters, March 6, 
1942, Julian A. Steyermark 44776 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 
British Honduras: Pueblo Viejo, 500 meters, February, 1924, 
W. A. Schipp S678. 

A relative of A. Pittieri Engler, of Costa Rica and Panama, but 
in that species the spathes are usually much larger and the spadix 
is slender-stipitate. 

Anthurium retiferum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Petioli 
26-37 cm. longi et ultra crassi (6-8 mm.), 1-1.5 cm. infra basem 
laminae geniculati, geniculo fere 1 cm. crasso; lamina in sicco sub- 
coriacea rigida plus minusve brunnescens vel fulvescens, oblongo- 
elliptica vel anguste oblongo-elliptica, 32-42 cm. longa 12-19 cm. 
lata, acuta vel apice subobtusa et apiculata, basi rotundata vel 
obtusissima, sublucida, fere concolor, nervis lateralibus primariis 
utroque latere ca. 12 supra impressis, subtus gracilibus maxime 
elevatis, nervis secundariis venisque valde elevatis et laxe reticulatis; 
pedunculus 19 cm. longus 4 mm. crassus; spatha (perfecta non visa) 
reflexa roseo-purpurea plus quam 6.5 cm. longa, ca. 13 mm. lata, 
cuspidato-acuminata; spadix sessilis cylindraceus 9 cm. longus 5 
mm. crassus purpurascens. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, epiphytic, Cerro Huitz, between 
Mimanhuitz and Yulhuitz, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 48621 (type in Herb. Field Mus.) ; Cerro Negro, 
2 miles east of Las Palmas, 1,600-2,000 meters, terrestrial on ridge 
in Liquidambar forest, Steyermark 51676. 

A well-marked species, apparently, not very closely related to 
any other Guatemalan one, but perhaps of the general alliance of 
A. parvispathum Hemsl. 

Anthurium titanium Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta 
gigantea, petiolis 55 cm. longis vel multo longioribus vix vaginatis 
sed prope basin paullo dilatatis, ca. 1.5 cm. infra basin laminae 
geniculatis, geniculo 1.5 cm. crasso; lamina in sicco chartacea vel 
crasse membranacea, rotundato-cordata, 50-120 cm. longa ca. 
40-60 cm. lata, apice obtusa vel rotundata et late breviterque 
cuspidata, basi profunde cordata, sinu lato aperto, integra, e basi 
7-nervia, nervis 2 extimis fere 1 cm. crassis, margine exteriore 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

longitudine 4-6 cm. nudo, 5-6 nervos crassos e latere inferiore emit- 
tentibus, nervis primariis lateralibus gracilibus remotis prominenti- 
bus in nervum collect! vum e margine remotum conjunctis, venis 
prominulis laxe reticulatis; pedunculus 70 cm. longus et ultra prope 
basin 2 cm. crassus; spatha coriacea erecta, viridis rubro vel purpureo 
tincta, lanceolata, 20-26 cm. longa 4.5-6.5 cm. prope basin lata, 
anguste attenuato-acuminata, basi valde amplexicaulis; spadix 
brunnescenti-viridis caudiformis ca. 19-30 cm. longus 12-18 mm. 
prope basin crassus vel in vivo 2.5-5 cm. crassus, sensim attenuatus, 
spatha longior, crasse 3-4.5 cm. longe stipitatus, stipite usque 12 mm. 
crasso. Guatemala: Dept. San Marcos: Terrestrial, Volcan de Taju- 
mulco, above Finca El Porvenir, along Rio Cabus to within 2 miles of 
Cueva de las Palomas, alt. 1,300-1,500 meters, March 16, 1940, 
Julian A. Steyermark 37963 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This appears to be an ally of A. Liebmannii Schott of Oaxaca, with 
which it was first identified, but in that species the leaves are 5-nerved 
from the base, and the spadix is sessile or nearly so. 

Monstera grandifolia Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
epiphyticus scandens, caulibus elongatis ca. 2 cm. crassis, glaber; 
petioli graciles ca. 25-35 cm. longi usque ad apicem anguste vaginati, 
geniculo ca. 15 mm. longo atque 8 mm. crasso; lamina crassa oblongo- 
ovata, ca. 50 cm. longa atque 26 cm. lata vel major et 35 cm. lata, ut 
videtur apice obtusa vel rotundata et breviter cuspidata, prope 
basin paullo angustata, basi ipsa late breviter cordata plus minusve 
inaequali, costa subtus crassa prominente, nervis primariis crassis 
prominentibus; pedunculi ca. 11 cm. longi, 1 cm. crassi; spatha 
ignota; spadix immaturus cylindraceus sessilis 18 cm. longus, 3 cm. 
crassus, dense multiflorus; stylus brevissimus lateque truncatus vel 
subtruncatus. Guatemala: Dept. Pet&n: Low forest between Finca 
Yalpemech and Chinaja, alt. 50-100 meters, March 28, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 45423 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Here probably belongs also Steyermark 38142, from Montana 
del Mico, Izabal. It differs only in having the leaf blades distinctly 
acute at the base and falcately acuminate at the apex. From the com- 
mon M. acuminata C. Koch of Guatemala this differs in its much 
larger leaves. Those of that species are either very obtuse or rounded 
at the base. In M. belizensis Lundell, which we have not seen, a 
species of nearby British Honduras, the leaves sometimes have a few 
perforations, and the style is conspicuously elongate. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 213 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina alpestris Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Perennis, 
radicibus plurimis elongatis crasse carnosis fasciculatis, saepe 
acaulescens, vel in statu fructifero e basi vel paullo supra basin 
pauciramosa et usque ad 30 cm. alta vel ultra; folia omnia radicalia 
vel pauca caulina prope basin plantae evoluta, lanceolata, 11 cm. 
longa et 2.5 cm. lata vel minora, attenuato-acuminata, basi dilatata 
et vaginantia, vaginis membranaceis pallidis ca. 2.5 cm. longis et 
1 cm. latis eciliatis; lamina glabra eciliata, supra viridis subtus 
paullo pallidior, marginibus cartilagineo-incrassatis; pedunculi 
plerumque simplices et scapiformes inter folia nascentes vel saepius 
e caule brevi basi 1-2-f oliato nascentes, pedunculis primis et interdum 
omnibus brevissimis et vaginis fere celatis, pedunculis fructiferis 
vulgo solemniter elongatis et usque 22 cm. longis crassis et usque 
5 mm. latis, laevibus glabrisque; spatha ad anthesin viridis ca. 
3-3.5 cm. longa et complicata 2-2.5 cm. lata, obtusa vel acuta, in 
statu fructifero usque 3 cm. lata et 4 cm. longa, sparse hirsutula, 
insigniter inter nervos transverso-venosa; flores plurimi, pedicellis 
brevibus crassis glabris; sepala glabra pallide viridia 5 mm. longa 
subacuta; petala magna intense caerulea ca. 15 mm. longa. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, rocky 
limestone outcrops with Juniperus, vicinity of Che'mal, alt. 3,700 
meters, August 8, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 50265 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.); same region, December, 1940, Standley 81082; dry 
slopes between Chiantla and Patio de Bolas, alt. 2,500 meters, 
Steyermark 48238; near Tunima, alt. 3,300-3,500 meters, Steyermark 
48308. Dept. Chimaltenango: Open meadow, Cerro de Tecpam, 
region of Santa Elena, alt. 2,700 meters, December, 1938, Standley 
58683; August, 1940, John R. Johnston 1715. 

The relationship of this plant is with C. coelestis Willd., which is 
widely distributed in the mountains of Guatemala, and likewise 
ascends sometimes to high elevations. C. alpestris, however, is 
distinguishable at a glance from all Mexican and Guatemalan 
material of C. coelestis that we have seen, for it is acaulescent or has 
very short stems from which arise several very stout and thick, 
much elongate, scape-like peduncles. The spathes of C. coelestis 
are relatively and usually absolutely smaller than those of C. alpestris. 

Zebrina huehueteca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Perennis, 
caulibus decumbentibus vel adscendentibus, e nodis radicantibus, 
glaucis, glabris, 85 cm. longis; folia subsessilia, supra viridia subtus 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

argillaceo-viridia, glabra, lanceolata vel elliptico-lanceolata, 9-15 cm. 
longa 3-6 cm. lata; vaginae 1.5-2.2 cm. longae, glabrae vel apice 
parce ciliatae; bracteae 2 inaequales, 3-8 cm. longae; sepala connata, 
tubo 6 mm. longo, lobis 3 mm. longis, glabra; corolla alba, tubo 1.5 
cm. longo, lobis elliptico-oblongis obtusis 6-7 mm. longis 2.5 mm. 
latis; stamina 6 paullo inaequalia; filamenta alba barbata 2-2.5 mm. 
longa; antherae albae, loculis rotundis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehue- 
tenango: Barranco slopes, along Rio Trapichillo, between Paso del 
Boqueron below La Libertad and Democracia, alt. 1,000-2,100 
meters, August 22, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 51016 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). 

The gamopetalous corolla and calyx place this plant in Zebrina. 
It is distinguished at once from Z. pendula and other later species 
of that genus by the glaucous stems, the glabrous leaves which are 
green above and silvery green beneath, the glabrous or almost 
glabrous sheaths which are only slightly ciliate at the apex, and the 
white corolla, filaments, and anthers. 

LILIACEAE 

Smilacina crassipes Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Terrestris 
vel epiphytica erecta vel dependens, caule interdum metrali crasso 
inferne fere 1 cm. crasso, basi aliquanto bulboso-incrassato; folia 
numerosa membranacea lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata vel 
oblongo-elliptica, vulgo 17-20 cm. longa et 4.5-5.5 cm. lata, interdum 
usque 8.5 cm. lata, attenuato-acuminata, basi obtusa vel rotundata 
et in petiolum crassum usque 7 mm. longum contracta; inflorescentia 
anguste paniculata 10-15 cm. longa 5-6 cm. lata, rhachi crassa 
angulata, ramis paucis angulo recto divaricatis crassis angulatis, 
vulgo 2-4-floris, pedicellis 5 mm. longis vel brevioribus crassis in 
sicco acute angulatis; perianthium pallide flavescens campanulatum, 
segmentis crassiusculis ovalibus vel ovali-ovalibus 6-7 mm. longis 
apice rotundatis, ad anthesin suberectis, plus minusve persistentibus; 
antherae ca. 1.3 mm. longae, staminibus perianthio paullo breviori- 
bus; bacca laete rubra ca. 8 mm. diam. Guatemala: Dept. Huehue- 
tenango: Growing on rocks, Cerro Pueblo Vie jo, rocky slopes above 
La Libertad, alt. 1,900 meters, August 20, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
51003 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. San Marcos: Hanging 
from a tree, Volcan de Tajumulco, Potrero Tojo, Finca El Porvenir, 
1,300 meters, March, 1940, Steyermark 37655. 

The second collection cited was determined by R. W. Emons as 
Smilacina paniculata Mart. & Gal., but it is in fruit only, and does 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 215 

not exhibit the flower characters that distinguish the plant here 
described as a new species. S. crassipes differs from S. paniculata in 
having much larger and thick perianth segments, also in the very 
thick pedicels and branches of the narrow panicle. 

MALVACEAE 

Robinsonella cordata Rose & Baker, Gard. & For. 10: 244. 
/. 31. 1897. Rebsamenia arborea Conzatti, Gn. Veg. Mex. 1903. 
Dr. T. H. Kearney recently wrote to the senior author of the present 
paper, inquiring about the identity of the genus Rebsamenia Conzatti, 
which, although described as a tree, is not mentioned in Trees and 
Shrubs of Mexico, having been overlooked by the author. As 
described, Rebsamenia consisted of a single species, based upon a 
collection by V. Gonzalez and C. Conzatti from Cerro de San Felipe, 
Oaxaca, Mexico, March 7, 1898. Conzatti's description is sufficiently 
ample, its most significant phrases indicating that the plant described 
is a tree and that its flowers are blue, which among Mexican Mal- 
vaceae can apply only to the genus Robinsonella, described by Rose 
and Baker in 1897. In her excellent monograph of Robinsonella 
(Journ. Arnold Arb. 12: 49. 1931) Mrs. Eva M. Fling Rousch does 
not mention Rebsamenia, but it is clear that this is referable to Robin- 
sonella cordata, which is cited there (p. 58) as having been collected 
on Cerro de San Felipe by Gonzalez and Conzatti March 7, 1898 (no. 
671). This no. 671 is doubtless the type collection of Rebsamenia 
cordata. 

SAURAUIACEAE 

Saurauia cuchumatanensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Frutex 1.5 m. altus, ramis crassis dense setis longis patentibus ferru- 
gineis setoso-hirsutis; folia magna subcoriacea breviter petiolata, 
petiolis crassis 2-3.5 cm. longis dense setoso-hirsutis; lamina oblonga 
vel elliptico-oblonga 17-25 cm. longa 6.5-8.5 cm. lata acuminata, 
basin rotundatam versus paullo angustata, inaequaliter serrata, 
dentibus salientibus, supra sat dense setis ferrugineis basi bulbosis 
setoso-hirsuta, subtus paullo pallidior sparse ad nervos venasque 
setis rigidis ferrugineis setoso-hirsuta, venis insigniter elevatis et 
arete reticulatis; inflorescentiae foliis duplo breviores vel interdum 
folia aequantes longipedunculatae, parvae et condensatae vel inter- 
dum laxe paniculatae atque 16 cm. longae et 12 cm. latae, rhachi 
ramisque dense pilis ferrugineis setoso-hirsutis, floribus magnis 
breviter longeve pedicellatis; sepala dense pilis longis patentibus 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

ferrugineis basi bulbosis obtecta, in statu fructifero 8 mm. longa; 
petala alba rotundata ca. 9 mm. longa; antherae 2 mm. longae vel 
paullo ultra apice poris magnis dehiscentes; styli distinct!. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Wet cloud forest, Cruz de Limon, 
between San Mateo Ixtatan and Nuca, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, 
alt. 2,600-3,000 meters, July 31, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 49810 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.); Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz and 
Yulhuitz, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July, 1942, Steyermark 48560. 
In view of the wretched "monographic" account of this genus, 
it is inadvisable, probably, to propose further species until the status 
of those already described has been established. There is no group 
of tropical American plants more sadly in need of serious mono- 
graphic study. Guatemalan plants of the genus suffered as much at 
the hands of Buscalioni as those of any other country, but we have 
been able to find names for most of the recognizable specific units 
represented by our rather ample material, and, fortunately, reduce 
to synonymy a number of the names that he proposed. There 
remain, however, three apparently distinct specific units for which 
we have been unable to find names among those proposed from Cen- 
tral America and Mexico, although it is quite possible that names for 
some of them may be found when order has been brought out of the 
jumble. Saurauia cuchumatanensis is a high-mountain plant, note- 
worthy for its abundant setose-hirsute pubescence of long spreading 
ferruginous setae and for its large and thick, conspicuously reticulate- 
veined leaves, which are broadest at or near the middle rather than 
above the middle as in most related Central American species. 

Saurauia perseifolia Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbor 
10-metralis, ramulis crassis dense stellato-pubescentibus vel tomento- 
sis atque dense setis longis brunneis adscendentibus vel subadpressis 
setosis; folia majuscula membranacea, petiolis crassis ca. 2 cm. longis 
ut ramis indutis; lamina oblongo-obovata vel obovata 17-22 cm. 
longa 7.5-10 cm. lata acuta vel subacuta, basin anguste rotundatam 
versus aliquanto angustata, subintegra vel supra medium arete 
serrulata, supra dense pilis patentibus vel subadpressis fulvis setosa, 
subtus paullo pallidior, densissime molliterque pilis patentibus 
fulvescentibus basi bulbosis setoso-pilosa; inflorescentiae pauciflorae 
densae usque ad 9 cm. longae longipedunculatae, pedunculis densis- 
sime breviter setosis et stellato-puberulis, pedicellis crassiusculis 
elongatis, floribus albis ca. 13 mm. latis vel paullo latioribus; sepala 
4.5 mm. longa rotundo-ovata, apice obtusa vel rotundata, setis 
brevibus crassis puberulis dense furfuracea; petala late ovata vel 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 217 

obovata apice obtusa vel rotundata, ca. 6 mm. longa, glabra; fila- 
menta basi pilosa, antheris fere 2 mm. longis apice poris magnis 
dehiscentibus. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Along Rio Tameja, 
Cerro San Gil, alt. 50 meters, December 24, 1941, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 41748 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This tree grows at or near sea level, an unusually low elevation 
for plants of this genus, at least in Central America. It is noteworthy 
for the large, thin, broad, mostly subentire leaves and very dense 
pubescence of slender, relatively soft, spreading, yellowish hairs. 

Saurauia veneficorum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbor ca. 
6-metralis, ramulis petiolisque setis longis gracilibus rigidis patenti- 
bus vel subreflexis brunnescentibus densissime setosis, petiolis 
gracilibus 1.5-2 cm. longis; folii lamina obovato-oblonga vulgo 9-16 
cm. longa et 4-6 cm. lata, apice acuta vel rotundata, basin subacutam 
vel anguste rotundatam versus sensim angustata, supra pilis longis 
gracilibus patentibus sparse setosa, subtus pilis longis gracilibus 
dense brunnescenti-setosa, inaequaliter serrata vel serrulata; inflores- 
centia laxa pauciflora graciliter longipedunculata, vulgo foliis duplo 
brevior vel brevior, interdum magis elongata, floribus albis 1.5 cm. 
latis vel latioribus crasse vel graciliter pedicellatis, pedicellis setis 
brunnescentibus densissime longisetosis; sepala ovalia vel rotundata 
6-8 mm. longa, apice rotundata vel obtusissima, setis longis gracilibus 
patentibus brunnescentibus dense setosis; styli glabri distincti; 
fructus siccus ca. 1 cm. diam. globosa vel depresso-globosa, pilis 
longis laxis mollibus sparse pilosa. Guatemala: Dept. Chiquimula: 
Middle slopes of Montana Norte to El Jutal, on Cerro Brujo, south- 
east of Conception de las Minas, alt. 1,700-2,000 meters, November 
2, 1939, Julian A. Steyermark 31081 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); 
Cerro Tixixi, north of Jocotan, 500-1,500 meters, Steyermark 31626. 

Here probably belongs also W. R. Hatch & C. L. Wilson 229 from 
Chicoyon, Coban, Alta Verapaz. This species is related to S. sub- 
alpina Donn. Smith, in which the setae of the petioles are closely 
appressed rather than spreading. 

PASSIFLORACEAE 

Passiflora macrostemma Killip, sp. nov. Glaberrima; stipulae 
falcato-subulatae; petioli eglandulosi; folia profunde bilobata, lobis 
erectis obtusis; pedunculi bini, bracteis setaceis; flores purpurei; 
corona 1-seriata, filamentis filiformibus; operculum subplanum, 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

erectum; limen cupuliforme erectum gynophorum cingens, margine 
divaricate. 

Herbaceous vine, glabrous throughout; stem subangular; stipules 
falcate-subulate, 4 mm. long, subpersistent; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long, 
glandless; leaf blades membranous, sublustrous on both surfaces, 
rounded or subtruncate at the base, ocellate beneath, bilobed one- 
half to two-thirds their length, 1.5-4 cm. long along the midnerve, 
4-9 cm. along the lateral nerves, 3-7 cm. between the apices of the 
lobes, the lobes erect or very slightly divaricate, 1.2-3 cm. wide, 
rounded, the sinus rounded or subtruncate; peduncles in pairs, 2-3 
cm. long, divaricate; bracts setaceous, 2.5-3 mm. long, borne just 
below the base of the flower; flowers 3-4 cm. wide when expanded, 
the calyx tube broadly campanulate; sepals lanceolate, about 2 cm. 
long, 1 cm. wide at the base, obtuse, ecorniculate, greenish purple 
without, deep lavender within; petals oblong, about 1.5 cm. long, 
4-5 mm. wide, obtuse, membranous, deep lavender; corona 1-ranked, 
the filaments numerous, filiform, 6-7 mm. long, erect; operculum 
membranous, erect, 4-5 mm. high, very slightly plicate, purple, 
green at the base; nectar ring none; limen about 3 mm. high, the 
base closely surrounding the gynophore, the margin spreading out- 
ward, entire; gynophore about 1 cm. long, rather stout; ovary sub- 
globose. Guatemala: Dept. Chiquimula: Volcan de Quezaltepeque, 
3-4 miles northeast of Quezaltepeque, alt. 1,500-2,000 meters, 
November 8, 1939, Julian A. Steyermark 31519 (type in Herb. Field 
Mus.); from the same general vicinity, Steyermark 31281. Dept. 
Jalapa: Montana Durazno, 2 miles east of San Pedro Pinula, alt. 
1,400-1,900 meters, Steyermark 32985. 

In the monograph of the American Passifloraceae (Field Mus. 
Bot. 19) this species would come in the subgenus Plectostemma, 
section Decaloba, series Organenses, where it is most nearly related 
to P. Salvador ensis. The foliage of the two is very similar, though 
in P. salvadorensis the leaf lobes are more divergent and the blades 
are of a thinner texture. The petals are barely a quarter as long as 
the sepals in P. salvadorensis, the operculum is lower, the gynophore 
is longer and more slender, and the limen is merely a slightly elevated 
ring on the floor of the calyx tube. 

LYTHRACEAE 

Crenea patentinervis (Koehne) Standl., sp. nov. C. surina- 
mensis (L. f.) Koehne, subsp. patentinervis Koehne, Bot. Jahrb. 3: 
320. 1882. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 219 

This shrub of tidal swamps is known only from the Pacific coast 
of Colombia, C. surinamensis, the only other species of the genus 
having a rather wide range, from Colombia or perhaps Panama 
through the Guianas to Bahia in Brazil. 

ERICACEAE 

Vaccinium minarum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov.-Frutex vel 
arbuscula 3-4.5 m. alta ramosa, ramis gracilibus subteretibus fuscis 
vel brunnescentibus, novellis saepe rubescentibus puberulis cito 
glabratis sat dense foliatis; folia inter minora coriacea breviter 
petiolata plus minusve lucida, petiolo crasso 3-5 mm. longo minute 
puberulo vel glabro; lamina elliptico-oblonga, obovato-oblonga vel 
lanceolata 2.5-3.5 cm. longa 8-15 mm. lata obtusa vel apicem 
obtusum versus angustata, basi acuta vel cuneata, remote et sub- 
obsolete adpresso-crenata, supra viridis glabra, costa interdum 
subimpressa, subtus paullo pallidior glabra epunctata, costa crassa 
prominula, nervis lateralibus obsoletis vel prominulis paucis, venis 
obsoletis; racemi axillares brevissimi pauciflori foliis plus quam 
duplo breviores, pedicellis rubris 3-7 mm. longis infra medium 
bracteolatis puberulis; hypanthium 1.5 mm. longum pilosulum, 
sepalis 5 triangulari-acuminatis 1 mm. longis extus puberulis; corolla 
rosea 6 mm. longa 2 mm. lata extus albido-hispidula, lobis 5 ovatis 
subacutis erectis ca. 1.3 mm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. Zacapa: 
Middle and upper southern slopes of Volcan Gemelos, Sierra de las 
Minas, alt. 2,100-3,200 meters, January 26, 1942, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 43295 (type in Herb. Field Mus.) ; Sierra de las Minas, between 
Loma El Picacho and Cerro de los Monos, 2,000-2,600 meters, 
Steyermark 42836. 

The second collection cited was reported under the description 
of Vaccinium haematinum Standl. & Steyerm. (Field Mus. Bot. 23: 
139. 1944) as probably referable to that species, but further material 
of the same plant and of V. haematinum that has come to hand shows 
that two distinct species are represented. In V. haematinum the 
flowers are glabrous, in V. minarum densely pubescent throughout, 
and there are obvious leaf differences. 

MYRSINACEAE 

Ardisia apoda Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbuscula 6-me- 
tralis, ramis crassis ferrugineo-furfuraceis vel glabratis subteretibus 
ut videtur dense foliatis; folia magna crasse membranacea sessilia 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

oblongo-oblanceolata, ca. 40 cm. longa et 9 cm. lata, longiacuminata, 
basin versus sensim anguste attenuata, basi ipsa late marginata 
anguste rotundata, Integra, supra viridia glabra, nervis obscuris, 
subtus pallidiora brunnescentia minute densiuscule ferrugineo- 
lepidota, dense fusco-punctata, costa gracili elevata, nervis laterali- 
bus tenerrimis inconspicuis, venis vix prominulis arete reticulatis; 
inflorescentia bene evoluta non visa, terminalis, ut videtur simpliciter 
ramosa pedunculata sparse furfuraceo-lepidota, floribus ut videtur 
breviter racemosis, pedicellis fructiferis fere 1 cm. longis crassiusculis 
sparse lepidotis; sepala rotundata 1.5 mm. longa ciliolata et suberosa, 
apice rotundata, grosse nigro-punctata; fructus globosus glaber 
8 mm. diam. niger. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Wet mixed forest, 
alt. 300-900 meters, Cerro San Gil, December 25, 1941, Julian A. 
Steyermark 41923 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

It is unsatisfactory and probably inadvisable to describe a new 
species from this material, which is vague as to the form and lesser 
details of the inflorescence, although it shows the leaf characters 
well. It is clear, however, that the single collection represents a 
species of Ardisia quite unlike any other known from northern 
Central America, nor does it appear referable to any of the numerous 
species described from Costa Rica. Among Guatemalan species of 
Ardisia it is distinguished at once by its sessile leaves, the perhaps 
theoretical petioles being broadly margined to the very base, where 
the blade is narrowly rounded or very obtuse. 

Ardisia Vatteri Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 1-3-me- 
tralis ut videtur dense ramosus, ramis brunneis primo sat dense 
ferrugineo-furfuraceis, cito glabratis, dense foliatis; folia parva 
breviter petiolata firme membranacea, petiolo lato submarginato 
3-5 mm. longo minute sparseque lepidoto vel fere glabro; lamina 
anguste obovato-elliptica vel elliptica 2-4 cm. longa 8-18 mm. lata 
obtusa vel acuta, basi cuneata, grosse supra medium crenato-dentata 
vel rarius subintegra, supra glabra, costa subimpressa, nervis 
obsoletis, subtus vix pallidior sparse minute brunnescenti-lepidota 
vel fere omnino glabra, costa gracili prominente, nervis lateralibus 
inconspicuis; inflorescentia terminalis parva corymbiformis simpli- 
citer ramosa vix ultra 2 cm. longa laxe pauciflora basi foliaceo- 
bracteata, bracteis superioribus oblongis obtusis usque 4 mm. longis 
subpersistentibus, pedicellis gracilibus erectis 4-5 mm. longis dense 
glandulis sessilibus vel substipitatis obsitis; sepala lanceolato- 
oblonga 1.8 mm. longa obtusa grosse punctata glanduloso-ciliolata; 
petala viridescenti-alba 3 mm. longa glanduloso-ciliolata apicem 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 221 

obtusum versus angustata; filamenta petalis bene longiora ca. 4 mm. 
longa, antheris late cordatis 0.7 mm. longis; fructus globosus 4 mm. 
diam. glaber grosse punctatus. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: 
Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz and Yulhuitz, Cerro de los 
Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. 
Steyermark 48558 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. Zacapa: 
Between Loma El Picacho and Cerro de los Monos, Sierra de las 
Minas, 2,000-2,600 meters, Steyermark 42834. Dept. Chiquimula: 
Cerro Brujo, 1,700-2,000 meters, Steyermark 31023 (sterile). Dept. 
El Progreso: Below summit of Volcan de Santa Luisa, Sierra de las 
Minas, about 3,000 meters, Steyermark 43555. 

One of the most distinct species found thus far in all Central 
America, easily recognized by its leaves, which are smaller than those 
of any other species of the Central American region. It is named for 
Albert E. Vatter, Jr., of Glenview, Illinois, who accompanied the 
junior author on his second expedition to Guatemala, and capably 
performed the duties of chief assistant and photographer. Mr. 
Vatter's work contributed greatly to the success of that expedition. 

SYMPLOCACEAE 

Symplocos abietorum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
vel arbor 4.5-9 m. alta dense ramosa, ramis crassis primo sparse 
pilis brunnescentibus rigidis patentibus hispidulis, internodiis 
brevibus; folia parva petiolata rigide coriacea, petiolo crasso 4-5 
mm. longo sparse hispidulo; lamina ovalis vel obovato-ovalis 3-4 
cm. longa 1.5-2 cm. lata, apice rotundata vel obtusissima, basi 
obtusa vel rotundata, in sicco lutescens, manifeste repando-denti- 
culata, supra glabra lucida, venis impressis, subtus fere concolor, 
sparse pilis brunnescentibus subpatentibus pilosa, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere ca. 6 gracilibus prominentibus, venis prominentibus 
arete reticulatis; flores solitarii sessiles vel subsessiles, bracteis 
rotundo-ovatis obtusis apiculatis ca. 2 mm. longis ciliatis extus 
glabris; sepala apice fructus persistentia rotundo-ovata ut videtur 
glabra ciliata; fructus glaber late ellipsoideus ca. 2 cm. longus et 
1.5 cm. latus basi et apice rotundatus sessilis. Guatemala: Dept. 
Huehuetenango: Moist cool mixed cloud forest, with Pinus Ayaca- 
huite and Abies guatemalensis, around Rancho de Teja, 3 miles west 
of San Mateo Ixtatan, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 3,330 meters, 
July 9, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48482 (type in Herb. Field Mus.) ; 
also no. 48467, with the same data. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

In its very small, thick-coriaceous, conspicuously denticulate 
leaves this is quite unlike any other species of Symplocos known from 
Mexico or northern Central America. 

Symplocos culminicola Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbor 
7-12-metralis ut videtur omnino glabra, ramis crassis subteretibus 
cinnamomeis vel ferrugineis, internodiis plus minusve elongatis; 
folia majuscula breviter petiolata firme coriacea in sicco lutescentia 
lucida, petiolo crasso 6-10 mm. longo; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel 
obovato-ovalis 6-14.5 cm. longa 3-6.5 cm. lata, apice late rotundata 
vel apicem obtusissimum versus paullo angustata, basi subacuta 
usque subrotundata, nervis supra prominulis, subtus pallidior, costa 
crassiuscula elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 7-10 gracilibus 
prominentibus vel prominulis, venis prominulis et laxe reticulatis 
vel interdum obsoletis, marginibus integris vel subintegris interdum 
revolutis; inflorescentiae (perfectae non visae) pauciflorae vel inter- 
dum 1-florae pedunculatae, pedunculis 1-floris ca. 2 cm. longis, 
inflorescentiis ut videtur interdum subracemosis, floribus longi- 
pedicellatis, ramis pedicellisque crassis glabris; hypanthium glabrum, 
sepalis ovato-rotundatis in statu fructifero ca. 4 mm. longis ciliolatis 
apice rotundatis vel obtusissimis; fructus oblongo-ellipsoideus 
2.5 cm. longus 1.5 cm. latus basi obtusus vel subrotundatus. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Chiquimula: Cloud forest, summit of Volcan de Quezal- 
tepeque, alt. about 2,000 meters, November 8, 1939, Julian A. 
Steyermark 31489 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. El Progreso: 
Montana Canahui, near upper limit of Finca Caieta, Sierra de las 
Minas, 2,300 meters, Steyermark 43808; hills north of Finca Pia- 
monte, in cloud forest near summit of Volcan de Santa Luisa, alt. 
3,200 meters, Steyermark 43504. 

It is possible that two species are represented by the material 
cited, but until more ample material, with flowers, has been col- 
lected, it seems preferable to treat the three collections as represent- 
ing a single species. In foliage characters S. culminicola somewhat 
resembles S. flavifolia Lundell of Chiapas, but that has less obtuse, 
usually undulate or crenate leaves and much smaller fruits. 

Symplocos Vatteri Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbor, 
ramulis gracilibus brunneis dense pilis sordidis vel brunnescentibus 
sericeis vel adpresso-pilosis; folia modica breviter petiolata chartacea, 
petiolo crasso 6-15 mm. longo dense piloso; lamina elliptico-oblonga 
9-14 cm. longa 4.5-5.5 cm. lata acuminata, basi rotundata vel late 
obtusa et interdum abrupte breviter decurrens, supra viridis sparse 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 223 

pilis longis laxis pallidis pilosa vel glabrata, sublucida, nervis venisque 
prominulis sed vix conspicuis, Integra, subtus multo pallidior et 
brunnescens, laxe sericea, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere ca. 13 prominentibus, venis prominulis laxe reticulatis; 
pedunculi axillares 1-flori vel rare 2-flori 2-4 cm. longi dense sordido- 
sericei vel subtomentosi graciles; sepala suborbicularia extus densis- 
sime pilis longis albidis vel ochraceis sericea, apice rotundata; 
corolla pallide purpurea, extus densissime pilis longis albis sericea, 
fere 2 cm. longa, lobis obovato-rotundatis apice late rotundatis, intus 
glabris, denticulatis vel erosis; stamina numerosissima pauciseriata 
corollam fere aequantia, filamentis crassis minute papillosis, antheris 
vix 0.7 mm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Moist cool 
mixed cloud forest with Pinus Ayacahuite and Abies guatemalensis, 
around Rancho de Teja, 3 miles west of San Mateo Ixtatan, Sierra 
de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 3,330 meters, July 9, 1942, Julian A. 
Steyermark 48463 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

From all other Symplocos species of Mexico and northern Central 
America this is distinguished at once by its unusually large flowers 
and by the greatly elongate, 1-flowered peduncles. It is a pleasure 
to dedicate this species to Albert E. Vatter, Jr., who was especially 
interested in the flora of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes. 

LOGANIACEAE 

Buddleia euryphylla Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbor 
7-15-metralis, ramis crassis obtuse tetragonis dense stellato-tomento- 
sis, tomento sublaxo brunnescente; folia magna petiolata mem- 
branacea, petiolo crasso 3-7 cm. longo laxe tomentoso; lamina late 
ovata vel elliptico-ovata 15-25 cm. longa et 9.5-15 cm. lata vel 
ultra, subacuta usque breviter acuminata, basi late rotundata usque 
acuta non decurrens, Integra vel undulata, supra viridis in statu 
adulto fere omnino glabra, nervis venisque inconspicuis, subtus 
pallidior atque brunnescens, ubique dense tomentosa, tomento e 
pilis inaequalibus mollibus sublaxis non adpressis composito, costa 
crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 12 prominentibus, 
nervis vix prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentiae paniculatae 
magnae pedunculatae interdum 30 cm. longae et fere aequilatae 
repetite ramosae, laxae, ubique tomento laxo e pilis ramosis com- 
posito dense indutae, floribus subcapitatis, capitulis laxe cymoso- 
paniculatis breviter pedunculatis paucifloris; calyx 3 mm. longus 
dense stellato-tomentosus, dentibus late triangularibus obtusis; 
corolla flava 4 mm. longa, lobis 4 orbiculatis extus dense stellate- 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

tomentulosis, intus basi sparse hispidulis. Guatemala: Dept. El 
Progreso: In ravine, Sierra de las Minas, between Finca Piamonte 
and top of Montana Piamonte, along Joya Pacayal, alt. 2,500-3,000 
meters, February 7, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48628 (type in 
Herb. Field Mus.); Sierra de las Minas, between El Jute de Cobana 
and Finca Piamonte, 1,400-2,400 meters, Steyermark 43377 (sterile). 
The relationship of this plant is obviously with B. Skutchii 
Morton, a common species of the Guatemalan mountains, but 
unknown in the Oriente. It differs from B. euryphylla in its much 
smaller flowers, small many-flowered heads, and usually much 
smaller leaves. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Asclepias Woodsoniana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
perennis erecta, caule gracili subsparse foliato bifarie albido-pubes- 
cente; folia crassiuscula breviter petiolata opposita, petiolo cras- 
siusculo 3-5 mm. longo glabrato; lamina fere linearis 4-8 mm. lata 
e basi subtruncata fere subhastata sensim apicem acutum versus 
attenuata 5.5-11 cm. longa utrinque glabra vel sparsissime puberula, 
1-nervia, subglaucescens; umbellae apice caulis et in axillis foliorum 
supremis 2-4, 1.5-3.5 cm. longe pedunculatae, ca. 12-florae, pedicellis 
gracilibus 10-14 mm. longis griseo-puberulis; calycis lobi oblongi 
acuti usque ad 2 mm. longi puberuli; corolla ut videtur pallide 
viridis 4.5 mm. longa glabra, lobis latis obtusis reflexis; columna 
staminalis crassa fere 1 mm. longa; foliola coronae ovata obtusa basi 
contracta et breviter unguiculata subcucullata; antherae 2.3 mm. 
longae apice albo-scariosae; corniculi coronae breviter exserti; folli- 
culi non visi. Guatemala: Dept. Jutiapa: Salt flats, potreros 
between Trapiche Vargas and Asuncion Mita, alt. about 500 meters, 
November 15, 1939, Julian A. Steyermark 31781 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). 

The nearest relationship of this species is not obvious, but of the 
Central American species it suggests only A. rosea HBK. That, 
however, has much narrower leaves with acute or attenuate, sessile 
bases, and differs in numerous other respects. A. Woodsoniana has 
been checked with all the species recorded from Mexico, but none 
of them agree at all closely with it. It is named for Dr. Robert E. 
Woodson, Jr., to whom we are much obligated for determinations of 
many of our Guatemalan Asclepiadaceae. 

Cynanchum stenomeres Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Scandens herbacea vel suffrutescens, caulibus interdum 2 m. longis 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 225 

gracillimis obscure bifarie puberulis vel glabris pallide viridibus 
interdum purpurascentibus, internodiis plerumque foliis longioribus; 
folia crasse membranacea penninervia breviter petiolata glabra vel 
sparse minute obscureque ad venas incurvo-puberula, petiolo gracili 
4-5 mm. longo; lamina lineari-lanceolata 3-6 cm. longa 4-7 mm. lata 
longe anguste attenuata, basi obtusa vel acuta, supra intense viridis, 
costa nervisque interdum impressis, subtus multo pallidior, costa 
prominente, nervis lateralibus tenerrimis obscuris; inflorescentiae 
umbelliformes axillares ca. 10-florae pedunculatae, pedunculo gracili 
usque ad 8 mm. longo vulgo breviore, pedicellis glabris vel sparse 
puberulis 2.5-4 mm. longis; flores albi fragrantes ca. 4 mm. longi; 
calycis lobi ovato-oblongi minuti obtusi dorso sparse minuteque 
puberuli vel glabri; corolla in alabastro oblongo-ovoidea vel oblonga 
apice obtusa, profunde lobata, lobis lanceolato-oblongis vel oblongo- 
linearibus saepius prope basin angustatis, extus glabris intus dense 
albo-pilosulis; gynostegium longistipitatum, stipite calyce duplo 
longiore, coronae lobis e basi parva anguste ovoidea anguste fili- 
formi-attenuatis corollae lobos fere aequantibus; stigma apice 
breviter rostratum, rostro appendicibus antherarum vix longiore. 
British Honduras: All Pines, open places, at sea level, February 5, 
William A. Schipp 674 (type in Herb. Field Mus.) ; El Cayo District, 
mountain pine ridge, San Agustin, in pimento palm grove, in 1936, 
C.L.Lundell 6656; Gracie Rock, Sibun River, Percy H. Gentle 1755; 
on bushes in broken ridge, 8 miles northeast of Boomtown, Hugh 
O'Neill 8660. 

In the present confused state of this genus it is difficult to decide 
what the relationship of this species may be, but it is clearly unlike 
any species of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies of 
which there is material at hand for comparison. The several col- 
lections cited have all been determined as Metastelma pedunculare 
Dene., described from Quezaltenango, Guatemala, and probably 
synonymous with Cynanchum Schlechtendalii. All forms of that 
species differ obviously in their relatively and usually absolutely 
short and broad, broad-based leaves that never are long-attenuate 
at the apex. There are also important differences in flower structure. 

While we do not care to make miscellaneous new combinations 
in the genus Cynanchum, to which Metastelma is quite properly 
reduced by Woodson in his revolutionary but apparently excellent 
realignment of the American genera of Asclepiadaceae, the following 
new names are necessary for treatment of the few Guatemalan 
species of Cynanchum. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Cynanchum chiapense (Gray) Standl. & Steyerm., comb. nov. 
Metastelma chiapense Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 21 : 397. 1886. 

Cynanchum collinum (Blake) Standl. & Steyerm., comb. nov. 
Metastelma collinum Blake, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 24: 19. 1929. 

Cynanchum Schlechtendalii (Dene.) Standl. & Steyerm., 
comb. nov. Metastelma parviflorum Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 731. 1831, 
not R. Br., 1809. M. Schlechtendalii Dene, in DC. Prodr. 8: 513. 1844. 
M. pedunculare Dene. op. cit. 514, syn. nov. M. decipiens Pittier, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 97. /. 4. 1910, syn. nov. Perhaps we are 
in error in reducing to synonymy the two names cited here, but there 
are no obvious characters by which the two species, based on Guate- 
malan material, can be separated from C. Schlechtendalii. Decaisne 
does not suggest any important differences between his two species, 
and Pittier in separating M. decipiens relied only upon Decaisne's 
descriptions. We have seen type material of all three of these species. 

Marsdenia blepharodes Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Scan- 
dens suffruticosa, caulibus teretibus gracilibus, in statu juvenili 
sparse puberulis cito glabratis; folia inter minora breviter petiolata 
membranacea, petiolo gracili 6-15 mm. longo glabro vel glabrato; 
lamina oblongo-lanceolata 7.5-10.5 cm. longa 2-2.5 cm. lata acumi- 
nata vel longiacuminata, basin versus longiattenuata, glabra, subtus 
paullo pallidior, nervis lateralibus utroque latere vulgo 3 subtus 
prominentibus; inflorescentia axillaris sessilis multiflora densa ca. 
1.5 cm. diam., pedicellis crassiusculis 4-5 mm. longis 'sparse puberulis; 
calyx 2.5-3 mm. longus extus dense albido-strigosus ad medium 
5-lobus, lobis ovalibus apice rotundatis dense ciliatis; corolla intense 
purpurascens extus glabra 4.5 mm. longa, lobis 5 late oblongis apice 
obtusissimis intus dense papilloso-puberulis tubo paullo longioribus; 
coronae squamae late rhombeo-ovatae vix ultra 1 mm. longae; 
stigma apice planum vel subplanum. Guatemala: Dept. Quezalte- 
nango: Climbing on tree fern bordering forest, San Juan Patzulin, 
alt. about 1,500 meters, January 6, 1940, Julian A. Steyermark 33615 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This evidently is related to M. may ana Lundell, of British Hon- 
duras and Guatemala, but in that the lateral nerves of the leaves 
are more numerous and the calyx lobes are glabrous dorsally, while 
the lobes of the corolla are shorter than the tube. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 227 

VERBENACEAE 

Aegiphila hoffmannioides Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Frutex 1.5-2.5 m. altus, ramis crassiusculis ad nodos aliquanto 
dilatatis pallide ferrugineis glabris, internodiis 1.5-2 cm. longis; 
folia modica graciliter petiolata crasse herbacea, petiolo 2-3.5 cm. 
longo glabro; lamina elliptica vulgo 10-17 cm. longa vel ultra, 5-7.5 
cm. lata, subabrupte longiuscule acuminata, basi acuta vel acumi- 
nata, glabra, supra in sicco viridis opaca, subtus brunnescens, costa 
crassiuscula subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
ca. 8 arcuatis angulo lato adscendentibus prominentibus, venis 
inconspicuis; inflorescentiae axillares umbelliformes plerumque 
triflorae petiolis breviores, pedunculo ca. 6 mm. longo gracili, pedi- 
cellis minute puberulis 4-5 mm. longis; calyx glaber turbinatus 
truncatus 3-4 mm. altus atque aequilatus; corolla flava ca. 7-8 mm. 
longa extus glabra, tubo brevi crasso, lobis paullo inaequalibus 
lanceolato-oblongis obtusis tubo bene longioribus. Guatemala: 
Dept. Huehuetenango: Near Maxbal, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, 
about 17 miles north of Barillas, alt. 1,500 meters, July 15-16, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 48843 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

In gross characters this species resembles closely A. pauciflora 
Standl. of British Honduras, but in that the calyx is abundantly 
strigose on the outer surface, rather than glabrous. 

Clerodendron mimicum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
epiphyticus ramosus, ramis crassis subteretibus ochraceis vel brun- 
nescentibus, sparse villoso-hirsutis, internodiis foliis multo breviori- 
bus; folia opposita brevi ter petiolata subcoriacea lucida, petiolo 
crassiusculo 5-10 mm. longo villoso-piloso vel glabrato; lamina 
elliptica vel elliptico-obovata, interdum subrhombeo-obovata, 5-12 
cm. longa 3-7 cm. lata, obtusa vel subacuta, basi cuneata et saepe 
decurrens, supra glabra, costa nervisque impressis, subtus fere con- 
color, in axillis nervorum sparse villoso-pilosa, costa elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere vulgo 4 gracilibus elevatis angulo semi- 
recto adscendentibus arcuatis, venis inconspicuis laxissime reticu- 
latis; flores axillares solitarii, vel pauci et fasciculati, pedicellis 
gracilibus fere rectis fere 2.5 cm. longis sparse brevi ter pilosis; calyx 
lobis inclusis 9-11 mm. longus sparsissime pilosulus vel fere glaber, 
tubo campanulato apice ca. 5 mm. lato subtruncato, lobis approxi- 
matis lineari-lanceolatis basi paullo dilatatis apicem versus sensim 
attenuatis erectis vel adscendentibus tubo subaequalibus; corolla 
intense purpureo-rubra extus glabra, tubo lato recto ca. 22 mm. longo 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

5 mm. lato sursum vix dilatato, lobis rotundo-ovatis apice rotundatis 
3.5 mm. longis ciliolatis; stamina inclusa. Guatemala: Dept. Hue-> 
huetenango: Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz and Yulhuitz, 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 48631 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. 
Zacapa: Volcan Gemelos, Sierra de las Minas, 2,100-3,200 meters, 
January, 1942, Steyermark 43267; Sierra de las Minas, between Loma 
El Picacho and Cerro de los Monos, 2,000-2,600 meters, Steyermark 
42832. 

In general appearance this species closely resembles C. pithecobium 
Standl. & Steyerm., which grows in Guatemala in the departments of 
Suchitepe"quez and Quezaltenango. It may be too closely related to 
that species, which it resembles in every respect except the calyx, 
which is decidedly different. The calyx in C. pithecobium is barely 
half as large and has very short lobes that are widely separated at 
the base. 

SOLANACEAE 

Lycianthes barbatula Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
3-4.5 m. altus, ramis gracilibus glabris; folia crasse membranacea 
breviter petiolata, paris maxime inaequalia, petiolo gracili glabro 
7-20 mm. longo; lamina foliorum majorum elliptico-oblonga vel 
ovato-oblonga 7-16 cm. longa 2.8-6.5 cm. lata, acuta vel acuminata, 
apice ipso obtuso, basi suboblique acuta vel obtusa, supra viridis 
glabra, subtus vix pallidior secus costam sparse denseve pilis sordidis 
longiusculis barbata, aliter glabra, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
6-7; folia minora paris breviter petiolata suborbicularia usque late 
ovata vel rotundo-ovata plerumque 1-3 cm. longa et fere aequilata, 
obtusa vel apice rotundata, basi rotundata; flores axillares fasciculati 
pauci, pedicellis gracillimis 2-2.5 cm. longis glabris; calyx late cam- 
panulatus 2.5 mm. longus glaber fere ad apicem appendicibus 5 
linearibus vel filiformibus viridibus 3 mm. longis vel ultra onustus; 
corolla late campanulata alba ca. 12 mm. longa glabra; stamina 
aequalia, filamentis glabris antheris paullo longioribus, antheris 
3 mm. longis oblongis; bacca globosa alba fere 1 cm. diam. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Suchitepe"quez : Volcan de Santa Clara, between Finca 
El Naranjo and upper slopes, alt. 1,250-2,650 meters, May 23, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 46653 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. 
Chimaltenango : Slopes of Volcan de Fuego, above Finca Montevideo, 
along Barranco Espinazo, 1,200-1,600 meters, September, 1942, 
Steyermark 52055. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 229 

An apparently well-marked species, not particularly close to any 
known previously from Guatemala, but related to the following new 
species. 

Lycianthes orogenes Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex vel 
arbuscula 1.5-3 m. alta et ultra glabra, ramis gracilibus; folia mem- 
branacea vel crasse membranacea petiolata paris valde inaequalia, 
petiolo 7-25 mm. longo; lamina foliorum majorum oblongo-elliptica 
vel elliptico-lanceolata vulgo 7-18 cm. longa et 1.5-5 cm. lata, 
acuminata vel longiacuminata, acumine ipso obtuso, basi cuneato- 
attenuata, subtus paullo pallidior, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
ca. 9; folia minora similia sed multo breviora 1.5-4.5 cm. longa, inter- 
dum ovata vel lanceolato-ovata; flores axillares fasciculati pauci, 
pedicellis gracillimis plerumque 2-2.5 cm. longis; calyx turbinato- 
campanulatus 3 mm. longus basi acutus truncatus, prope apicem 
appendicibus 5 erectis viridibus linearibus vix ultra 1 mm. longis 
onustus; corolla alba late campanulata 7 mm. longa et ultra glabra; 
stamina aequalia; fructus globosus ca. 8 mm. diam. Guatemala: 
Dept. Chimaltenango: Southwestern slopes of Volcan de Fuego, 
above Finca Montevideo, along Barranco Espinazo, alt. 1,200-1,600 
meters, September 20, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 52104 (type in 
Herb. Field Mus.) ; Panajabal, 1,350 meters, January, 1939, Standley 
62118, 62136. Dept.. Quezaltenango: Volcan de Zunil, at and above 
Aguas Amargas, February, 1939, Standley 65304; along old road 
between Finca Pirineos and Patzulin, 1,200-1,400 meters, February, 
1941, Standley 87146, 86997, 87013. 

There are referred here also several other collections, from the 
departments of Quezaltenango and Sacatepe"quez. The shrub is 
common in the central and western mountains of Guatemala, but 
we have found it in flower but once. It is related to L. barbatula, 
described above, but seems constantly different in its quite glabrous 
leaves and much shorter calyx appendages. 

Physalis amphitricha (Bitter) Standl. & Steyerm., comb. nov. 
Saracha amphitricha Bitter, Repert. Sp. Nov. 20: 362. 1924. The 
type of this species is Bernoulli & Carlo 2335, collected in Guatemala 
between San Martin Sacatepe'quez and Las Mercedes, Quezalte- 
nango. We have not seen type material, but Bitter's description 
evidently relates to a plant common in moist or wet, mountain 
forests of the departments of Quezaltenango and San Marcos. In 
Guatemala we have made more than 20 collections of it, which 
illustrate its slight variations. It is represented also by Purpus 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

6671 from Boqueron, Chiapas, Mexico. Bitter had only flowering 
branches, and so was uncertain as to the generic position of the plant, 
but he placed it in Saracha, suggesting, however, that it might 
actually represent a distinct and new genus, for which he suggested 
but did not properly publish the name Heterosaracha. He would 
have been greatly surprised if he had seen the flowers develop into 
fruits, for the fruits are exactly those of Physalis, and in no way 
resemble fruits of Saracha. 

The ample material of this and related forms now at hand repre- 
sents a group of plants common in various regions of Guatemala. 
We are describing on the following pages three segregates that seem 
to represent valid species, differing constantly in the pubescence and 
lobing of the calyx. There is some basis for treating these plants as a 
distinct and new genus. They are all very large, tall, coarse, soft- 
stemmed herbs that in habit and general appearance, when growing, 
do not at all suggest Physalis. The corolla is rotate or nearly so, 
deeply lobate and not plicate, densely pubescent outside and within, 
and densely lanate or tomentose in the throat. The flowers are all 
or nearly all fasciculate, while in Physalis proper they are solitary. 
It would be safe and reasonable to treat these species as constituting 
a separate genus if it were not for a group of three other species that 
are more or less intermediate between them and typical Physalis. 
The latter species are Physalis melanocystis (Robinson) Bitter of 
San Luis Potosi, P. mayana Standl. of the Yucatan Peninsula and 
Veracruz, and, probably, P. porphyrophysa Bonn. Smith, of Zacapa, 
Guatemala, the last known only from fruiting specimens. P. por- 
phyrophysa is a woody vine, and the other two species mentioned 
also are decidedly ligneous. All these three species have fasciculate 
flowers, but the corolla is somewhat campanulate (so far as it is 
known), and not at all like that of Physalis amphitricha. P. melano- 
cystis was referred by Robinson with question to Withania, an Old 
World genus from which it differs little and perhaps only in geo- 
graphic distribution. Although the shape of the corolla has been 
much used as a basis for separating genera in the Solanaceae, and is 
a quite satisfactory character in some cases, it is highly variable 
and not always dependable. It therefore seems necessary, for the 
present at least, to leave all the species mentioned here in Physalis. 
They could be separated on the basis of their fasciculate rather than 
solitary flowers, but this alone does not seem sufficient basis for a 
generic segregation, although it is more definite than the characters 
on which many of the genera of Solanaceae are based, and probably 
does indicate a homogeneous group of some taxonomic importance. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 231 

Physalis arnica Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba ramosa 
erecta ca. 1.5 m. alta, caulibus crassiusculis dense sordido-villosis; 
folia petiolata herbacea, petiolo 7-12 mm. longo dense villosulo; 
lamina ovata vel elliptico-ovata interdum rhombeo-ovata vulgo 
4-8 cm. longa atque 2-4.5 cm. lata, acuta vel breviter acuminata, 
basi plus minusve obliqua acuta vel abrupte acuta, angulato-dentata 
vel subintegra, utrinque sat dense pilis crassiusculis plurilocularibus 
villosa; pedicelli fasciculati ca. 8 mm. longi superne incrassati dense 
breviter villosuli; calyx 6-8 mm. longus campanulatus dense brevi- 
terque villosulus fere ad medium 5-lobus, lobis ovatis acutis vel 
acuminatis; corolla pallide luteo-viridis ca. 2.5 cm. lata fere rotata, 
tubo lato brevi, extus intusque dense viscido-puberula, fauce dense 
villosa vel tomentosa, profunde 5-loba, lobis ovatis obtusis vel 
acutis; filamenta longa gracilia superne glabra, antheris filamentis 
duplo brevioribus ca. 3 mm. longis oblongis; calyx fructifer non 
visus. Guatemala: Dept. San Marcos: Along stream in moist or 
wet forest, 2,500-3,000 meters, between La Vega ridge and northeast 
slopes of Volcan de Tacana, along Rio Vega, February 20, 1940, 
Julian A. Steyermark 36175 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Apparently a rare plant, and only one collection of it was made. 
In most respects it is like P. amphitricha but is distinguished by its 
densely villosulous rather than glabrous calyx, and by the abundant 
pubescence on all vegetative parts. 

Physalis calidaria Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 1-1.5 
m. alta erecta vel laxa et adscendens ramosa, caulibus gracilibus 
dense brevi terque villosulis; folia petiolata membranacea, petiolo 
vulgo 1-2 cm. longo dense villosulo; lamina ovata vel elliptica 6-17 
cm. longa 3-8 cm. lata acuminata vel longiacuminata, basi acuta vel 
obtusa et abrupte acuminata vel decurrens, supra viridis sparse 
villosa, subtus pallidior sat dense villosa; inflorescentiae umbelli- 
formes pauciflorae sessiles vel brevissime pedunculatae, pedicellis 
gracillimis 10-15 mm. longis, villosulis vel puberulis; calyx late cam- 
panulatus ca. 3 mm. altus et 5 mm. latus dense viscido-puberulus 
vel villosulus, margine subintegro vel brevissime 5-lobo, lobis 
latissime rotundatis vel subtruncatis; corolla rotata pallide luteo- 
virescens ca. 2.5 cm. lata extus intusque dense viscido-puberula, 
fauce dense villoso-lanosa, profunde 5-loba, lobis late ovatis ca. 8 mm. 
longis atque 6 mm. latis obtusis vel acutiusculis; filamenta gracillima 
glabra antheris fere duplo longiora, antheris ovalibus fere 3 mm. 
longis; calyx fructifer ca. 2.5 cm. latus et aequilongus obtuse 5-angula- 
tus basi depressus glaber vel glabratus, pallide viridis, conspicue retic- 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

ulato-venosus, venis elevatis. Guatemala: Dept. Quezaltenango : 
Fuentes Georginas, west slope of Volcan de Zunil, in wet mixed forest, 
alt. about 2,850 meters, March 4, 1939, Paul C. Standley 67488 (type 
in Herb. Field Mus.); same locality, 2,300-2,500 meters, February 3, 
1941, Standley 85932, 85892, 85885. Dept. San Marcos: Volcan de 
Tajumulco, between Todos Santos and Finca El Porvenir, 1,300- 
3,000 meters, March, 1940, Steyermark 36988. 

From P. amphitricha this species differs in its densely pubescent 
and subtruncate calyx; from P. arnica in its subtruncate calyx. 

Physalis chimalteca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba vel 
suffrutex ramosus erectus vel adscendens 1.5-2.5 m. altus, caulibus 
sparse pilis laxis vel subadpressis villosis vel fere glabris; folia petio- 
lata membranacea, petiolo vulgo 1.5-4 cm. longo sparse villosulo vel 
glabro; lamina ovata usque elliptica vel late elliptica vulgo 5-11 cm. 
longa atque 3-8.5 cm. lata acuta usque acuminata, apice ipso obtuso, 
basi acuta usque obtusa vel subrotundata, plus minusve angulata 
vel undulato-dentata vel subintegra, supra viridis sparsissime pilis 
brevibus crassis villosula, subtus pallidior, sparse pilis crassis pluri- 
locularibus praesertim prope costam villosula; inflorescentiae umbel- 
liformes pauciflorae sessiles, pedicellis plerumque ca. 12 mm. longis 
superne incrassatis glabris vel glabratis; calyx late campanulatus ca. 
4.5 mm. altus et 6.5 mm. latus glaber vel glabratus, margine ciliato 
undulato 5-lobatus, lobis brevissimis apiculatis vel subtruncatis; 
corolla pallide lutescenti-viridis vel albido-viridescens ca. 2 cm. lata 
rotata extus intusque dense viscido-puberula, fauce dense villoso- 
lanosa, ca. 15 mm. longa, profunde 5-loba, lobis ovatis vel triangulari- 
bus acutis vel acuminatis; filamenta antheris plus quam duplo 
longiora glabra, antheris ovalibus 2.5 mm. longis vel paullo ultra; 
calyx fructifer non visus. Guatemala: Dept. Chimaltenango: Slopes 
of Volcan de Acatenango, above Las Calderas, in dense wet Chi- 
ranthodendron forest, alt. 2,400-2,700 meters, January 3, 1939, Paul 
C. Standley 61803 (type in Herb. Field Mus.), 61965; Volcan de 
Acatenango, 2,400 meters, February, 1907, W. A. Kellerman 6610. 
Dept. Quiche" : San Miguel Uspantan, April, 1892, Heyde & Lux 3435 
(probably referable here). 

Resembling P. amphitricha in its glabrous calyx but in that 
species the calyx is deeply lobate, with ovate lobes. Both P. arnica 
and P. calidaria are distinguished by their densely pubescent calyces. 

Solanum alpicum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba peren- 
nis, interdum acaulis, caulibus interdum elongatis et usque ad 25 cm. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 233 

longis, solitariis vel pluribus, sparse pilis longis laxis albis plurilo- 
cularibus villosis, radicibus sine dubio tuberiferis, tuberibus non 
visis; folia pinnata vel infima radicalia simplicia, 3-5-foliolata longi- 
petiolata vulgo 5-10 cm. longa, interdum in plantis caulescentibus 
multo longiora, rhachi nuda vel anguste alata sparse albo-villosa; 
foliola valde inaequalia, inferioribus sensim decrescentibus, foliolo 
terminal! elliptico, ovali vel elliptico-ovato 3-11 cm. longo et 1.5-6 
cm. lato, lateralibus duplo brevioribus vel minoribus, foliolis omnibus 
membranaceis integris, obtusis vel acutis, utrinque subtus densius 
pilis longis albidis plurilocularibus crassiusculis villosis, basi acutis vel 
subrotundatis obtusisve atque abrupte contractis, sessilibus; inflores- 
centiae 1-pauciflorae foliis breviores, pedicellis gracillimis usque ad 
3.5 cm. longis, vulgo duplo brevioribus, dense albo-villosis, supra 
medium articulatis; calyx ca. 4 mm. longus viridis profunde lobatus, 
sat dense villosus, segmentis ovatis acuminatis; corolla purpurea vel 
alba 15-18 mm. longa extus sparse albo-villosa, limbo ut videtur 
5-angulato; antherae luteae; bacca globosa glabra 1-1.5 cm. diam. 
apice late rotundata. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Cerro 
Che'mal, summit of Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 3,700-3,800 
meters, August 8, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 50303 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.); vicinity of Che'mal, 3,700 meters, August 8, 1942, 
Steyermark 50247; near Che'mal, 3,300 meters, September, 1941, 
John R. Johnston 1969; alpine areas, vicinity of Tunima, Sierra de 
los Cuchumatanes, July, 1942, Steyermark 48369. 

This plant is obviously related to S. demissum Lindl., a species of 
the mountains of central and southern Mexico, and it is not certain 
that the two are distinct. The Mexican material available for com- 
parison is unsatisfactory, but, if one may depend upon the descrip- 
tions of S. demissum, the Guatemalan plant is distinct, as one might 
expect from its isolated range and the very high elevation at which 
it occurs. Three of the collections consist of plants that are acaules- 
cent or nearly so, while one consists of luxuriant caulescent plants 
about 25 cm. high or larger, which probably grew in a protected 
place. The region where the species grows is an alpine one, where 
below-freezing temperatures are common during the winter months 
of the North, and probably throughout the year. The plant is, of 
course, a relative of Solanum tuberosum, and it is curious to note that 
in the Che'mal region the only agriculture is potato growing. This, 
however, is a coincidence. While most of the leaves in S. alpicum 
are pinnate, the earliest leaves of the rosette-like clusters are simple 
and long-petiolate, the succeeding ones bearing only a few very 
greatly reduced leaflets on the upper part of the petiole. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Solatium fontium Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 2-3- 
metralis omnino glaber ramosus, ramis vetustioribus insigniter 
elevato-lenticellatis; folia modica petiolata membranacea solitaria 
vel 2-3-nata integra, petiolo crassiusculo 1-3 cm. longo; lamina 
lanceolato-oblonga medio vel prope basin latissima 7.5-20 cm. longa, 
3-7 cm. lata, acuminata, basi inaequali obtusa vel subrotundata vel 
acuta, subtus non barbata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 11 
arcuatis; inflorescentia oppositifolia pedunculata, vulgo furcata sed 
interdum simpliciter umbellata, pauci- vel multiflora, pedicellis 
glabris usque 15 mm. longis; calyx campanulatus 3 mm. longus 
glaber brevissime lobatus vel dentatus, dentibus obtusis; corolla 
alba extus glabra ca. 6-7 mm. longa fere ad basin lobata, lobis ovato- 
oblongis obtusis; antherae late oblongae 3 mm. longae; ovarium 
glabrum; baccae non visae. Guatemala: Dept. Quezaltenango: 
Wet forest, Fuentes Georginas, western slope of Volcan de Zunil, 
alt. 2,850 meters, March 4, 1939, Paul C. Standley 67473 (type in 
Herb. Field Mus.); also no. 67492 with the same data; and from the 
same locality, February, 1941, Standley 85928. Dept. San Marcos: 
Wet forest along road above Barranco Eminencia, alt. 2,700 meters, 
Standley 68502. 

Related, evidently, to S. Rovirosanum Bonn. Smith, but appar- 
ently fully distinct in its narrow leaves of different shape, with much 
more acute or acuminate apex. 

Solatium huehuetecum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Fruti- 
culus ca. 30 cm. altus ramosus, inferne lignosus superne herbaceus, 
ramis gracilibus sparse denseve stellato-pubescentibus; folia alterna 
vel opposita subaequalia petiolata membranacea, petiolo gracillimo 
7-15 mm. longo stellato-pubescente; lamina ovata vel lanceolato- 
ovata, interdum deltoideo-ovata, vulgo 3-5 cm. longa et 1-2 cm. 
lata, acuta vel acuminata, apice ipso obtuso, basi rotundata vel 
obtusissima, supra viridis sparse pilis brevibus simplicibus pilosa, 
subtus concolor sparse vel dense pilis albidis stipitatis pauciradiatis 
stellato-pilosa, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 4-5, integra; inflores- 
centiae extra-axillares pauciflorae sessiles vel subsessiles, pedicellis 
gracillimis plerumque 2-2.5 cm. longis sparsissime stellato-pubes- 
centibus vel glabris; calyx viridis campanulatus basi acutus 3 mm. 
longus sparse stellato-puberulus fere ad medium 5-lobatus, lobis 
ovatis obtusis vel acutis dorso 1-costatis; corolla alba stellato-cam- 
panulata extus glabra ut videtur ca. 6-7 mm. longa (perfecta non 
visa) ad medium 5-loba, lobis angustis attenuatis; antherae fere 
sessiles oblongae ca. 3.5 mm. longae, antheris omnibus aequalibus; 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 235 

bacca globosa glabra ca. 8 mm. diam., apice late rotundata. Guate- 
mala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Above Democracia on trail to Jutal, 
alt. 1,000 meters, August 23, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 51039 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

We are unable to suggest a close relative for this species, which 
has no particularly outstanding characters but at the same time is 
not at all similar to any other known from Central America. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Tetranema roseum (Mart. & Gal.) Standl. & Steyerm., comb, 
nov. Episcia rosea Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9, pt. 2: 39. 1842. 
T. mexicanum Benth. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 52. 1843. Allophyton 
mexicanum Pennell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 77: 271. 1925. The 
name Episcia rosea is not mentioned by Pennell in his account of this 
genus (loc. cit.), but it is listed by Hemsley in Biologia Centrali- 
Americana as a synonym of T. mexicanum. The type collection of 
Episcia rosea (Galeotti 1905) is listed by Bentham in his account 
of Tetranema (DC. Prodr. 10: 331. 1846), although he does not cite 
the name applied to the same collection by Martens and Galeotti. 

BIGNONIACEAE 

Pseudocalymma Standleyi Steyermark, sp. nov. Frutex 
scandens, ramis teretibus ochraceis, junioribus obtuse tetragonis vel 
subteretibus viridibus glabris; folia magna 2.5-4 cm. longe petiolata; 
foliola 2 crasse chartacea vel subcoriacea 1.5-2 cm. longe petiolulata 
late elliptica vel ovato-elliptica 15-18 cm. longa 9-11 cm. lata abrupte 
breviter acuminata, basi obtusa vel subrotundata, glabra, subtus 
paullo pallidiora basi in axillis nervorum basalium dense impresso- 
glandulosa, e basi trinervia, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 6, 
venis prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentiae axillares vel laterales 
thyrsoideae 18-27 cm. longae 6-8 cm. latae multiflorae, ramis com- 
pressis glabris, floribus longipedicellatis; calyx late campanulatus et 
subinflatus crasse membranaceus 15-23 mm. longus 15-21 mm. latus, 
glaber, margine brevissime 5-lobo, lobis subinaequalibus vix ultra 
2.5 mm. longis 4-7 mm. latis; corolla pallide purpurea ca. 7 cm. longa, 
tubo extus glabro 4.7 cm. longo 2 cm. lato, lobis ovato-rotundis apice 
rotundatis 2.3 cm. longis 2.2 cm. latis, extus glanduloso-lepidotis; 
stamina inclusa, filamentis glabris; antherae glabrae, loculis divari- 
catis 4.5-4.8 mm. longis; discus annularis; ovarium oblongum minute 
glanduloso-lepidotum. Guatemala: Dept. Quezaltenango: Between 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Finca Pirineos and Finca Soledad, lower southern slopes of Volcan 
de Santa Maria, between Santa Maria de Jesus and Calahuache", alt. 
1,300-1,400 meters, January 5, 1940, Julian A. Steyermark 33533 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Local name "bejuco de ajo," a term given commonly to the 
various vines of this family having a strong alliaceous odor. Its 
large and somewhat inflated calyx distinguishes this plant from the 
North American species of the genus. It probably is more nearly 
related to P. alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith, of the Guianas and Brazil, 
of which we have seen no material. As described, that has a smaller 
calyx and a much smaller corolla. A striking character of P. Stand- 
leyi is the numerous large impressed glands on the lower leaf surface 
in the axils of the basal nerves. 

GESNERIACEAE 

Solenophora abietorum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Planta 
terrestris herbacea vel suffrutescens erecta vel decumbens simplex 
vel sparse ramosa 50 cm. alta et ultra, caule obtuse tetragono sparse 
denseve pilis longis laxis albidis multilocularibus villoso; folia oppo- 
sita subaequalia longipetiolata herbacea, petiolo gracili 3-3.5 cm. 
longo laxe villoso; lamina elliptica vel ovato-elliptica, interdum ovata 
vel obovato-elliptica 5.5-9.5 cm. longa 3-5.5 cm. lata, acuta vel bre- 
viter acuminata, basi paullo inaequali rotundata vel obtusa, subad- 
presse serrato-dentata, supra viridis densissime pilis laxis villosa, sub- 
tus saepe vinacea ad nervos venasque dense laxeque villosa, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere ca. 7; pedicelli axillares solitarii 1-2.5 cm. 
longi dense villosi; calyx 12-17 mm. longus late campanulatus 
viridis dense villosus, tubo campanulato ca. 4 mm. longo, limbo 
breviter 5-lobo, lobis subrotundatis semiorbicularibus 3-4 mm. longis 
integris vel obsolete denticulatis; corolla lutea 3.5-4 cm. longa vel 
paullo ultra extus sparse villosa vel fere glabra, tubo superne sensim 
ampliato fauce non contracto et ca. 1 cm. lato, limbo ca. 3-3.5 cm. 
lato intus ad faucem sparse villosulo, subregulari, brevissime lobato; 
filamenta glabra; stylus villosulus. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuete- 
nango: Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz and Yulhuitz, Sierra de 
los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. 
Steyermark 48643 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); also no. 48637, with 
the same data; in cloud forest with Abies guatemalensis, Cerro 
Canana, between Nucapuxlac and Canana, Sierra de los Cuchu- 
matanes, 2,500-2,800 meters, July 18, 1942, Steyermark 49067. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 237 

The plant represents a species very different from the others 
known in Guatemala, and we have been unable to find a close ally 
among any of the Mexican or other Central American species. The 
large, bright yellow corollas are marked inside with interrupted 
brown lines or dashes. 



ACANTHACEAE 

Aphelandra gigantiflora Lindau, f. lutea Standl. & Steyerm., 
f . nov. A forma typica speciei non nisi corollis intense luteis differt. 
Guatemala: Dept. Escuintla: Wooded barranco of Rio Gavilan, 
northeast of Escuintla, alt. 720 meters, March 16, 1941, Paul C. 
Standley 89560 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

A shrub 1.5 meters high; corollas deep yellow. Aphelandra 
gigantiflora is a rather common and handsome shrub in the Guate- 
malan foothills near the Pacific coast, and numerous collections have 
been made of it there. Invariably, except for this single collection, 
it has been found to have brilliant deep red corollas. In other 
Central American Acanthaceae the color of the corolla is constant 
except for minor variations in intensity. One would normally expect 
that a yellow-flowered plant would be specifically distinct from 
A. gigantiflora, but we find no other differences between this color 
variant and the rest of the Central American specimens. 

Carlowrightia myriantha Standl., comb. nov. Justicia myri- 
antha Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 8: 45. 1930. 

Beloperone montana Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. Herba 
decumbens, caulibus adscendentibus dense bifariam villosis, pilis 
fulvis patulis; lamina foliorum elliptico-ovata, obtusa vel acutiuscula, 
apice ipso obtuso, basi angustata in petiolum decurrens, Integra, 
supra subdense pilosula, pilis curvatis, subfulvis, subtus purpurea, 
adpresso-pilosula; spicae breves erectae in paniculam terminalem 
angustam aggregatae, rhachibus dense subquadrifariam fulvo-villo- 
sis; bracteae oblongo-spathulatae, hirsutae, pilis subflavis, plerisque 
marginalibus; calycis segmenta lineari-subulata, tenuia, subhyalina, 
dense pilosa, pilis rectis patulis plerisque marginalibus; corolla pur- 
purea, labio superiore oblongo brevi bilobato, inferiore ovato trilo- 
bate, lobis rotundatis; capsulae clavatae, hirtellae, pilis apicem 
versus patulis, basin versus retrorsis. 

Decumbent herb up to 25 cm. long or more; stems ascending, 
often rooting at the lower nodes, densely villous in 2 lines, the hairs 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

more or less matted, light yellowish brown, spreading, up to 2 mm. 
long, the cystoliths numerous, subpunctiform; leaf blades elliptic- 
ovate, up to 11 cm. long and 6.5 cm. wide, obtuse or acutish, nar- 
rowed at base and decurrent on the petiole, membranaceous, entire, 




FIG. 1. Beloperone montana Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. (Steyermark 41939): 
a, plant; 6, bracts; c, calyx segment; d, hair from bract; e, anther and portion of 
filament (a, X K; b, c, X 2; d, about X 15; e, about X 4). 

the cystoliths 0.25 to 0.5 mm. long, straight, fairly conspicuous on 
the upper surface, absent beneath; upper surface dark green (teste 
Steyermark), rather densely pilosulous, the hairs curved, brownish, 
up to 1 mm. long, the costa and lateral veins (5 or 6 pairs) slightly 
raised; lower surface purple with green margins (teste Steyermark), 
rather uniformly appressed-pilosulous, the hairs curved, 0.5 mm. 
long or less; petioles about 1 cm. long, densely villous except in the 
open channels, the cystoliths numerous, subpunctiform ; flowers borne 
in a narrow terminal pedunculate panicle up to 15 cm. long and 3 cm. 
broad, consisting of short erect spikes up to -3 cm. long and 1 cm. 
broad; rachis densely villous, the hairs up to 2 mm. long, yellowish 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 239 

brown, disposed more or less in 4 lines; bracts in 3's, pale green 
(teste Steyermark), oblong-spatulate, the middle one 13 mm. long, 
4 mm. wide near the middle, the lateral ones 12 mm. long and 2 mm. 
wide, all rounded at apex, narrowed to a flat base 1.5 mm. wide, 
rather prominently veined, hirsute, the hairs up to 2 mm. long, 
yellowish brown, confined chiefly to the margins and veins; calyx 
8 mm. long, the segments linear-subulate, thin, subhyaline, rather 
densely pilose, the hairs up to about 1 mm. long; corolla dark and 
pale purple (teste Steyermark), about 5 mm. long (immature), the 
upper lip oblong, shallowly 2-lobed, the lower lip ovate, 3-lobed, the 
lobes rounded; anther sacs parallel, about 2 mm. long, one attached 
slightly above the other, the upper one acute at base, the lower one 
appendaged, the tail slightly less than 0.5 mm. long; capsule 1 cm. 
long, 4 mm. broad, abruptly pointed at apex, narrowed from about 
the middle to a flattened stipitate solid base 2 to 2.5 mm. broad, 
hirtellous, the hairs 0.5 mm. long, spreading or ascending toward 
the tip, those of the lower portions retrorse; seeds (immature) 
light brown, flattened; retinacula about 2 mm. long, rounded or 
obtuse at tip. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: On uppermost summit of 
Cerro San Gil, alt. 1,200-1,300 meters, December 26-27, 1941, Julian 
A. Steyermark 41939 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Closely related to Beloperone Brenesii Leonard, of Costa Rica, 
differing chiefly in its much larger leaf blades, relatively shorter 
petioles, and much larger inflorescences. Plants of B. Brenesii are 
taller (up to 40 cm. high or more), the leaf blades 5 cm. long and 3 cm. 
wide or less, and the flowers borne in a terminal spike or thyrse 
up to 10 cm. long and usually not exceeding 4 cm. The pubescence 
and the shape and arrangement of the bracts are very similar in the 
two species. 

Dicliptera guttata Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. Frutex dif- 
fusus vel suffrutex grandis diffusus, caulibus subhexagonis pubes- 
centibus, pilis curvatis; lamina foliorum ovata vel oblongo-ovata, 
breviter acuminata, apice ipso obtuso, basi angustata, in petiolum 
decurrens, membranacea, Integra, hirsutula; petioli graciles, parce 
pubescentes; cymae axillares et terminales, sessiles vel breviter 
pedunculatae, compactae, compositae, cymae primariae bracteis 
subulatis dense ciliatis suffultae, cymae secundariae bracteis inae- 
qualibus, longioribus obovatis, brevioribus oblongis, ambobus sub- 
obtusis vel subacutis apice apiculatis, viridibus et purpureo-macu- 
latis, dense ciliatis suffultae; bracteae floriferae lineares, dense 
ciliatae; calycis segmenta anguste linearia, ciliata; corolla purpurea, 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

tenuiter pubescens, labio superiore integro, inferiore brevissime 
trilobo; capsulae ovales, planae, hirtellae, pilis erectis vel retrorsis. 

Sprawling shrubs or large suffrutescent herbs up to 1 meter high 
or more; stems dull green, subhexagonal, pubescent, the hairs up 
to 0.75 mm. long, variously curved; leaf blades ovate to oblong-ovate, 
up to 10 cm. long and 4 cm. wide, acuminate (the tip itself blunt), 




FIG. 2. Dicliptera guttata Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. (Steyermark 42396): 
a, portion of stem; b, inflorescence; c, bract subtending the primary cyme; d, e, 
bracts subtending the secondary cymes; /, bract subtending a flower; g, calyx; h, 
upper portion of corolla; i, expanded capsule (a, b, X /4; c-i, XI). 

narrowed at base and decurrent on the petiole, membranous, entire, 
the cystoliths of both surfaces scattered, inconspicuous, 0.25 to 0.5 
mm. long, the upper surface grass-green (teste Steyermark), hirsutu- 
lous, the hairs up to 0.75 mm. long, appressed or subappressed, or the 
costa pubescent with small curved hairs, both costa and lateral veins 
(6 or 7 pairs) slightly raised, slender but rather prominent, the lower 
surface pale dull green (teste Steyermark), rather coarsely hirsutulous, 
especially on the veins, the hairs up to 0.75 mm. long, straight or 
curved; petioles slender, up to 5 cm. long, sparingly pubescent; flow- 
ers borne in crowded, compound, terminal or axillary cymes up to 2.5 
cm. long and 3 cm. broad, these subsessile or borne on pubescent 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 241 

peduncles up to 1 cm. long, the hairs white, straight or curved, up to 
1 mm. long, the primary cymes composed usually of 3 secondary 
cymes, these in turn composed of 2, 3, or more subsessile flowers; 
bracts subtending the primary cymes subulate, 6 mm. long, 1 mm. 
wide at base, ciliate; bracts subtending the secondary cymes unequal, 
one obovate, 14-16 mm. long, 10 mm. wide, the other oblong, 10-12 
mm. long and 3-4 mm. wide, both obtusish, apiculate, narrowed at 
base, pubescent and ciliate, dull green and (especially the larger of 
the two) bearing conspicuous magenta-brown specks and mottlings 
in their upper third; bracts subtending the flowers linear, 1 cm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, sharply acuminate, sparingly pilose and ciliate, the 
marginal hairs 1-1.5 mm. long, those on the flat surfaces shorter; 
calyx 8 mm. long, the segments 6-7 mm. long, subulate, ciliate, the 
hairs straight and spreading, both the calyx segments and inner 
bracts subhyaline; corolla "rose-purplish-orchid" (teste Steyermark), 
finely pubescent, 2.5 cm. long, about 2 mm. broad at base, narrowed 
to 1 mm. at tip of ovary, thence gradually enlarged to a cylindric 
tube 3.5 mm. broad at mouth, the lips subequal, oblong, 6-8 mm. 
long, the upper one about 4 mm. wide, entire, the lower 3 mm. wide, 
minutely 3-lobed; capsule oval, flattened, 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, 
1.5 mm. thick near base and narrowed to 1 mm. toward the obtuse 
mucronate tip, sparingly hirtellous, the hairs straight, those near 
the tip erect, the others retrorse; mature seeds not seen; retinacula 
1.5 mm. long, 0.5 mm. thick at base, abruptly narrowed to a subulate 
tip. Guatemala: Dept. Zacapa: Along Rillito del Volcan de Monos, 
Sierra de las Minas, alt. 1,150-2,100 meters, January 10, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 42396 (type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 1,843,435; 
isotype in Herb. Field Mus., no. 1,153,510). 

This species has apparently no close relatives in Central America. 
The name alludes to the peculiar purple-spotted bracts. 

Jacobinia umbrosa (Benth.) Blake, f. erythrantha Standl. & 
Steyerm., f. nov. A forma typica speciei differt corollis intense 
rubris, non luteis. Guatemala: Dept. Chimaltenango: Moist forest, 
above Las Calderas, alt. 1,800-2,100 meters, December 15, 1938, 
Paul C. Standley 60082 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); same locality, 
October 25, 1937, John R. Johnston 1108. 

In the typical form of this species, which is a common, somewhat 
weedy plant in many parts of southern Mexico and Central America, 
the large corollas are bright yellow and very showy. So far as we 
are able to determine, this red-flowered plant differs only in the 
coloring of its flowers. 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 



Justicia alsophila Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. Herba debilis, 
caulibus decumbentibus, teretibus vel apicem versus subquad- 
rangularibus, bifariam pubescentibus, pilis sordidis retrorsis, nodis 
infimis radicantibus; lamina foliorum ovata vel elliptica, subobtusa, 
basi cuneata, in petiolum decurrens, tenuis, supra glabra, subtus in 
costa parce hirtella; petioli graciles, incurvo-puberuli; flores axillares, 
solitarii, subterminales; bracteae foliaceae, membranaceae, ellipticae 




FIG. 3. Justicia alsophila 
Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. 
(Steyermark 48884): a, por- 
tion of stem; b, bracts; c, ca- 
lyx; d, hair from bract (a, 
X 1; b, X 2;c, about X 3; d, 
about X 60). 



vel obovatae, unguiculatae, parce glanduloso-pilosae; calyx glaber, 
segmentis subulatis; corolla et capsula ignotae. 

Weak decumbent herbs up to 25 cm. long; stems moderately 
branched, rooting at lower nodes, terete or subquadrate toward 
tip, pubescent in two lines, the hairs sordid, retrorsely curved, 
0.5 mm. long or less, the cystoliths numerous, linear (0.25-0.5 mm. 
long) or subpunctiform at the nodes, inconspicuous; leaf blades 
ovate to elliptic, 1-3.5 cm. long, 5-20 mm. wide, obtusish at apex, 
cuneate at base and decurrent on the petiole, membranous, the 
cystoliths numerous, about 0.3 mm. long, whitish, conspicuous on 
both surfaces; upper surface glabrous, olive-green, the costa and 
lateral veins (3-4 pairs) not elevated, inconspicuous; lower surface 
olive-brown, glabrous except the sparingly hirtellous costa; petioles 
slender, up to 1.5 cm. long, sparingly incurved-puberulous, the hairs 
about 0.5 mm. long; flowers solitary, borne in the axils of the upper 
leaves; bracts leaf like, membranous, elliptic to obovate, the middle 
bract about 8 mm. long and 3 mm. wide, the lateral ones about 7 
mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide, all unguiculate, narrowed to a slender 
petiole-like base, sparingly glandular-pilose, the hairs spreading, 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 243 

0.25 mm. long; calyx 4.5 mm. long, glabrous, the segments 5, subu- 
late, 3.5 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide at base; corollas and capsules not 
seen. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango : In steep rocky wet forest 
of a ravine southwest of Maxbal, about 17 miles north of Barillas, 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500 meters, July 15-16, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 48884 (type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 1,843,505; 
isotype in Herb. Field Mus., no. 1,147,110). A paratype was 
collected on the same date by Steyermark (no. 48705) in woods 
near a lake about 2 miles southeast of Maxbal. Specimens of this 
are in the U. S. National Herbarium (no. 1,843,504) and in the 
Herbarium of Field Museum (no. 1,147,108). 

Apparently unrelated to any Central American member of the 
genus. No trace of a corolla is to be found in the specimens exam- 
ined. Whether the flowers are cleistogamous and thus incon- 
spicuous or the corollas are early deciduous must be left to conjecture 
at present. There is also the possibility that the plants from which 
the specimens were collected had failed to develop normal flowers 
because of an uncongenial habitat. 

Justicia Steyermarkii Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. Suffrutex, 
caulibus ramosis teretibus vel apicem versus subquadrangularibus, 
subbifariam fulvo-puberulis; lamina foliorum oblongo-lanceolata, 
acuminata, apice ipso obtuso, basi angustata, in petiolum breviter 
decurrens, integra vel undulata, supra fulvo-hirtella, subtus sub- 
glabra; flores axillares, solitarii et subterminales, vel in spicam 
brevem axillarem subterminalem dispositi; bracteae foliaceae, oppo- 
sitae, spathulatae, rotundatae, basi angustatae, tenues; calycis 
segmenta parce hirtella, ciliolata; corolla parce pubescens, labio 
superiore emarginato, inferiore anguste ovato, purpureo-maculato, 
trilobate, lobis rotundatis; ovarium parce et minute pubescens, 
pilis rectis, retrorsis; capsula ignota. 

Suffrutescent herbs up to 1.5 meters high; stems branched, 
terete or the tips subquadrangular, puberulous, the hairs yellowish- 
brown, about 0.25 mm. long, upwardly curved, mostly disposed in 
2 rows; leaf blades oblong-lanceolate, up to 6 cm. long and 2 cm. 
wide, acuminate, gradually narrowed from middle or lower third 
to the blunt tip, narrowed at base and short-decurrent on the petiole, 
entire or undulate, the cystoliths about 0.3 mm. long, very incon- 
spicuous, more numerous on the lower surface than on the upper, 
the upper surface dull dark green (teste Steyermark), sparingly 
hirtellous or the costa densely so, the hairs about 0.3 mm. long, 
straight or curved, spreading or appressed, brownish; lower surface 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

subglabrous, light olive green, the costa and lateral veins (5 or 6 
pairs) raised, more conspicuous than above; petioles slender, up to 
1 cm. long, densely puberulous, the hairs yellowish brown, upwardly 
curved; flowers axillary, solitary, and sub terminal, or borne on short 
spikes at or near the tips of the numerous branches, subsessile or 
borne on short peduncles up to 3 mm. long, these densely brown- 
puberulous with upwardly curved hairs; bracts opposite, spatulate, 




FIG. 4. Justicia Steyermarkii Standl. & Leonard, sp. nov. (a, Steyermark 
48590; 6, c, d, Steyermark 48934): a, portion of branch; 6, bract; c, segment of 
calyx; d, anther and portion of filament (a, X 1; 6, c, about X 2; d, about X 3). 



about 1 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, rounded at tip, narrowed into a slender 
petiole-like base about 6 mm. long, the texture and pubescence like 
that of the leaf blades; calyx 7 mm. long, the segments subulate, 
6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide at base, gradually narrowed to a slender 
tip, sparsely hirtellous, ciliolate; corolla 2 cm. long, sparingly pubes- 
cent (hairs spreading or retrorse, 0.25 mm. long), the upper lip 
whitish gray outside, dull purple within, the lower lip white, marked 
by 3 broken bands of dull purple, the spots becoming small toward 
the tip (teste Steyermark), the corolla tube about 3.5 mm. broad at 
base, gradually enlarged to 5 mm. at throat, the upper lip ovate, 
about 1 cm. long and 7 mm. wide, rounded and emarginate at tip, 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 245 

the lower lip slightly shorter and narrower than the upper, 3-lobed 
at apex, the lobes rounded, about 2 mm. long; stamens slightly 
exserted, the anther lobes obliquely inserted, one slightly above the 
other, the ventral margins bearded, the basal tail of the upper lobe 
minute, subulate, that of the lower about 0.5 mm. long, blunt at 
tip, the connective thin, about 0.75 mm. wide; ovary sparingly and 
minutely pubescent, the hairs straight, retrorse; capsules and seeds 
not seen. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Between Xoxlac and 
Nucapuxlac, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,650-2,500 meters, 
July 17, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48934 (type in U. S. Nat. Herb., 
no. 1,843,506; isotype in Herb. Field Mus., no. 1,153,502). A 
paratype (U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 1,843,502; Herb. Field Mus., no. 
1,153,529), was collected in the same general locality on Cerro Huitz, 
between Mimanhuitz and Yulhuitz, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 
1942, Steyermark 48590. 

Related to Justicia multicaulis Bonn. Smith, but easily separated 
by its larger leaf blades, denser pubescence, and much larger corollas. 
The corollas of J. multicaulis are rarely over 12 mm. long and their 
tubes are very slender and scarcely over 1 mm. broad. The bracts 
of the two species are strikingly similar. 

Mendoncia guatemalensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Scandens suffrutescens, caule subtereti dense pilis fulvis subadpressis 
pubescente; folia petiolata firme membranacea, petiolo 1.5-2 cm. 
longo adpresso-pilosulo; lamina elliptica 7.5-11.5 cm. longa 4-6 cm. 
lata subito longiacuminata, basi rotundata et interdum abrupte 
breviter decurrens, supra viridis sparsissime adpresso-pilosula vel 
glabrata, ad costam dense adpresso-pilosula, subtus paullo pallidior 
ubique sat dense pilis fulvis adpressis pilosula, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere 4-5; pedicelli vulgo geminati crassiusculi in statu 
fructifero 10-14 mm. longo adpresso-pilosuli; bracteolae ellipticae 
22-25 mm. longae ca. 13 mm. latae obtusae basi rotundatae dense 
pilis brevibus incurvo-pilosulae; drupa ellipsoidea 2 cm. longa obtusa 
glabra. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Between Ixcan and 
Rio Ixcan, alt. 150-200 meters, July 23, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
49270 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Only two other species are found in northern Central America. 
M. retusa differs in having glabrous or nearly glabrous leaves and 
bracts. M. Lindavii Rusby is even more abundantly pubescent than 
M. guatemalensis, with long spreading hairs on the pedicels, and the 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

bractlets are oblong-lanceolate, about 3.5 cm. long, and acuminate. 
Three other species known from southern Central America are all 
easily distinct from this new Guatemalan plant. 

Poikilacanthus setiferus Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
60-90 cm. alta ramosa, dense pilis longis patentibus plurilocularibus 
villoso-hirsutis, internodiis plerumque brevibus; folia petiolata mem- 
branacea integra, petiolo 1-2.5 cm. longo hirsute; lamina ovata vel 
oblongo-ovata 4-9.5 cm. longa 2-4 cm. lata acuminata, acumine 
ipso obtuso, basi rotundata usque subacuta non decurrens, supra 
viridis sparse setoso-hirsuta, cystolithis crebris conspicuis, subtus 
pallidior ubique dense pilis longissimis patentibus rigidiusculis 
hirsuta, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 7; flores subcapitati, 
capitulis terminalibus singulis, pedunculo gracili 6-15 mm. longo 
dense hirsute; bracteae extimae foliis consimiles sed parvis 2 cm. 
longae vel breviores, interioribus oblanceolatis vel lanceolato- 
linearibus calyce paullo longioribus dense hirsutis; calyx ca. 6 mm. 
longus, segmentis anguste lanceolatis attenuato-acuminatis hirtellis; 
corolla purpurea ca. 5.5 cm. longa extus sparse villosa, tubo superne 
sensim ampliato fauce 5-7 mm. lato, labio posteriore ca. 3 cm. longo 
1 cm. lato apice brevissime bilobo, labio inferiore paullo breviore; 
stamina corollam aequantia; antherae loculi ca. 2 mm. longi. 
Guatemala: Dept. Alta Verapaz: Between Chama and Coban, alt. 
900 meters, August 15, 1920, Harry Johnson 523 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). Dept. Huehuetenango : Cerro Chiblac, between Ixcan 
and Finca San Rafael, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, 1,800 meters, 
July, 1942, Steyermark 49453. 

Poikilacanthus is a small genus of large plants with exceptionally 
beautiful flowers. Eight species have been listed, of which only one 
has been reported from Central America, P. macranthus Lindau, 
which ranges from Guatemala to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It 
occurs in the forests of Alta Verapaz, where the type of the present 
plant was collected. In P. macranthus, a rather frequent plant of the 
wet Guatemalan mountains, the corolla is about 7.5 cm. long, and 
the pubescence of the lower leaf surface consists of very short and 
inconspicuous, appressed or curved hairs. In P. setiferus the hairs 
are so long that when the leaf is pressed and dried they extend 
almost halfway from one lateral nerve to another. The second 
collection cited is practically sterile, but it has the characteristic 
pubescence of the type, which we have observed in no other Guate- 
malan plant of this family. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 247 

RUBIACEAE 

Stomandra Standl., gen. nov. Arbores puberulae vel fere 
glabrae, ramulis subteretibus; stipulae ut videtur caducae, non 
visae; folia majuscula opposita crasse membranacea petiolata oblonga 
vel elliptico-oblonga abrupte acuminata; flores parvi albi pentameri 
bracteolati sessiles vel subsessiles in paniculas amplas multifloras 
oppositiramosas dispositi; hypanthium obovoideum glabrum; calyx 
brevis subpatens ciliolatus obscure brevissime depresso-lobulatus 
persistens; corolla hypocrateriformis parva in alabastro apice rotun- 
data extus glabra, tubo brevi campanulato intus glabro, lobis tubo 
subaequilongis patentibus, in alabastro valvatis, ovato-oblongis 
apicem obtusum versus angustatis intus glabris; stamina basi tubi 
inserta,' filamentis crassiusculis basi paullo incrassatis et pilosulis; 
antherae basifixae erectae oblongae subexsertae apice rotundatae 
vel subemarginatae, poro magno terminali dehiscentes; discus 
tumidus obscure 5-angulatus; ovarium 2-loculare, stylo cras- 
siusculo antheris longiore apice rotundato vel subclavato; ovula 
in loculis numerosa; fructus sine dubio capsularis, non visus. 

Stomandra costaricensis Standl., sp. nov. Arbor 12-metralis, 
ramis in sicco fuscescentibus fere teretibus, novellis minutissime 
puberulis vel fere glabris, internodiis brevibus; folia petiolata in 
sicco fuscescentia, petiolo crassiusculo 1.5-2.5 cm. longo minute 
puberulo vel glabrato; lamina ovali-oblonga vel elliptico-oblonga 
17-20 cm. longa 7-8.5 cm. lata, brevi ter cuspidato-acuminata, 
acumine ipso obtuso, basi obtusa vel subacuta, utrinque glabra vel 
glabrata, supra sublucida, costa nervisque manifestis sed non elevatis, 
subtus fere concolor, brunnescenti-fuscescens, costa tenera promi- 
nente, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 16 gracillimis angulo lato 
interdum fere recto divergentibus marginem versus sursum curvatis, 
venis inconspicuis laxe reticulatis; panicula ca. 3.5 cm. longe pedun- 
culata magna 20 cm. longa 14 cm. lata, ramis plus minusve compressis 
minute puberulis, primariis oppositis, floribus singulis vel cymulosis 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus; bracteae et bracteolae late triangulares 
vel triangulari-ovatae, primariae usque ad 5 mm. longae, bracteis 
superioribus bracteolisque vix ultra 1 mm. longae, puberulae vel 
glabratae; hypanthium glabrum 1.8 mm. longum basi paullo angusta- 
tum; calyx vix 0.5 mm. altus, lobis saepe vix manifestis; corolla 
3 mm. longa, tubo lobis subaequilongo, lobis ad margines subincras- 
satis apice subcucullatis; antherae fere toto longitudine exsertae 
2 mm. longae, connectivo crassiusculo, poris apicalibus magnis. 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Costa Rica: Basin of El General, Prov. San Jose", alt. 675-900 meters, 
March, 1940, Alexander F. Skutch 4777 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

It is no pleasure to name a new genus in the Rubiaceae, in which 
the number of recognized groups is already embarrassingly large, but 
the possible combinations of generic characters seem to be almost 
limitless. The present plant in general appearance suggests the 
genera Holtonia and Elaeagia of the tribe Rondeletieae, but this 
resemblance seems to be purely accidental, for its true place is 
apparently in the Condamineae, to none of whose few genera can it 
be referred comfortably. Because of the erect anthers, opening by 
apical pores, its true relationship is probably with Rustia. That 
genus differs markedly in its large flowers whose corollas have an 
elongate tube much longer than the lobes. 

Coussarea mediocris Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbuscula 
6-7.5 m. alta, ramis teretibus ut videtur viridibus glabris vel obscure 
pulverulentis; stipulae ca. 3 mm. altae latissimae intrapetiolares et 
connatae, apice lato brevissime bilobae persistentes; folia firme 
membranacea plus minusve lucida graciliter petiolata, petiolo glabro 
1.5-2 cm. longo; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel lanceolato-oblonga 
9-14.5 cm. longa 3.5-4.5 cm. lata subabrupte longiacuminata, basi 
acuta, glabra, costa gracili subtus elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere ca. 6 arcuato-adscendentibus, venis prominulis laxe reticulatis; 
inflorescentia terminalis cymoso-paniculata crasse 1.5-3 cm. longe 
pedunculata, 3-4 cm. longa et aequilata, e basi trichotoma, ramis 
crassis teretibus glabris, floribus ad apices ramulorum dense aggre- 
gatis sessilibus; hypanthium glabrum campanulatum fere 1.5 mm. 
altum basi rotundatum; calyx vix 0.5 mm. altus viridescens, obscure 
undulato-dentatus, dentibus multo latioribus quam longis; corolla 
alba 2.5 cm. longa extus glabra, tubo basi ca. 2 mm. lato dein sub- 
angustato, superne paullo dilatato, apice 3 mm. lato, lobis lineari- 
oblongis 7-8 mm. longis obtusis; antherae subexsertae lineares 
acutae 4 mm. longae. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango : Forested 
ravine, vicinity of Maxbal, about 17 miles north of Barillas, Sierra 
de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500 meters, July 15, 1942, Julian A. 
Steyermark 48732 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

In most respects this is similar to C. mexicana Standl. of Oaxaca, 
but that has much shorter petioles, smaller corollas, and a somewhat 
differently arranged inflorescence. The only other species known 
from Guatemala is C. impetiolaris Bonn. Smith, in which the leaves 
are sessile or nearly so. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 249 

Hoffmannia huehueteca Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
1.5 m. altus vel humilior, interdum 30 cm. tantum altus, vulgo 
simplex, caule crasso subtereti ferrugineo densissime breviter fer- 
rugineo-villosulo, internodiis plerumque brevibus; stipulae incon- 
spicuae triangulari-acuminatae ca. 3 mm. longae ferrugineo-villo- 
sulae; folia petiolata herbacea, petiolo crasso usque ad 2 cm. longo, 
saepe fere nullo, villosulo; lamina oblanceolata vel obovato-oblonga 
10-20 cm. longa 2-7.5 cm. lata, breviter cuspidato-acuminata, 
acumine obtuso, basin versus longe sensim attenuata, vulgo fere ad 
basin petioli decurrens, supra viridis glabra, nervis inconspicuis vix 
elevatis, subtus pallidior viridis in sicco brunnescens ad costam 
nervosque densissime et brevissime ferrugineo-villosula vel pilo- 
sula, inter nervos minute puberula, costa crassiuscula prominente, 
nervis lateralibus manifestis gracilibus utroque latere ca. 12 angulo 
lato divergentibus arcuatis; flores in axillis foliorum densissime 
aggregati numerosi cymulosi, cymulis sessilibus vel brevissime 
pedunculatis, sessiles vel breviter pedicellati; hypanthium villosulum 
vel fere glabrum ovale ca. 2 mm. longum; calycis lobi anguste 
triangulares vel anguste oblongi ca. 2 mm. longi obtusi vel acuti 
villosuli vel fere glabri; corolla non visa; bacca rubra subovalis 
glabra vel glabrata in sicco 3.5-4 mm. longa; semina numerosa 
minuta. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango (Sierra de los Cuchu- 
matanes) : Cerro Negro, 2 miles east of Las Palmas, alt. 1,600-2,000 
meters, August 31, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 51697 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.); vicinity of Maxbal, 1,500 meters, Steyermark 48841, 
48720; Cerro Huitz, between Barillas and Mimanhuitz, 1,600-2,600 
meters, Steyermark 48538. Dept. El Progreso: Sierra de las Minas, 
Volcan de Santa Luisa, 2,400-3,300 meters, Steyermark 43508. 

An exceptionally well-marked species for this genus, distinguished 
by the abundant ferruginous pubescence, narrow leaves long-atten- 
uate at the base, and very dense clusters of flowers. 

Hoffmannia racemifera Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
simplex vel ramosus omnino glaber, ramis gracilibus, vetustioribus 
ochraceis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae inconspicuae deltoideae 
acutae vix ultra 1.5 mm. longae; folia graciliter petiolata tenuiter 
membranacea, petiolo 1.5-4.5 cm. longo; lamina elliptica vel ovato- 
elliptica 10-16 cm. longa 4-7.5 cm. lata acuminata vel longe cuspi- 
dato-acuminata, basi obtusa vel acuta non vel vix decurrens, subtus 
paullulo pallidior, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 8 teneris 
prominulis angulo lato arcuato-adscendentibus; inflorescentiae 
axillares racemosae simplices secundae graciliter longipedunculatae 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

pauciflorae laxae petiolis vulgo longiores, pedicellis gracillimis 4-6 
mm. longis; hypanthium obovoideo-turbinatum 1.5 mm. longum 
basi acutum glabrum; calycis lobi vix 0.5 mm. longi triangulares 
acuti erecti; corolla in alabastro juvenili tan turn visa glabra apicem 
obtusum versus paullo angustata; bacca globoso-ovalis alba in sicco 
ca. 4 mm. longa. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Cerro San Gil, dense 
wet forest, alt. 300-900 meters, December 25, 1941, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 41910 (type in Herb. Field Mus.) ; also no. 41991, at about 1,200 
meters. 

The type is said to have been taken from a tree of 7.5 meters, 
but the senior author believes that this size is the result of a lapse 
in memory, since such dimensions are unknown in other species 
of the genus, all of which are low, simple or sparsely branched shrubs, 
seldom attaining a height of 3 meters. The second collection is an 
entire plant with roots and was less than a meter high. This species 
is most noteworthy because of the slender, long-pedunculate, race- 
mose and secund, few-flowered inflorescences. 

Hoffmannia Tuerckheimii Bonn. Smith, var. glabra Standl. 
& Steyerm., var. nov. A typo recedit foliis subtus omnino glabris; 
caules glabri; corolla extus sparse ferrugineo-villosa. Guatemala: 
Dept. El Progreso : Sierra de las Minas, Montana Canahui, between 
Finca San Miguel and summit of mountain, alt. 1,600-2,300 meters, 
February 10, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 43806 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). 

The typical form of H. Tuerckheimii has abundantly villous 
leaves and stems. While the difference in pubescence makes the 
two forms very unlike in general appearance, it is not believed that 
the one here named is more than a variety. 

Hoffmannia quadrifolia Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
gracillimus laxe ramosus 1-2.5 m. altus, ramis pallidis vel ochraceis 
obscure tetragonis vel subteretibus fere glabris, novellis sparse 
pilis brevibus subcurvis pilosulis, internodiis plerumque brevibus; 
folia parva tenuiter membranacea petiolata, pro magna parte 
quaternata, pro parte opposita, petiolo gracili 2-8 mm. longo glabro 
vel ciliato; lamina oblongo-elliptica vel elliptico-oblanceolata 2-5 
cm. longa 8-15 mm. lata obtuse acuta vel acuminata, basi longi- 
attenuata et interdum fere ad basin petioli decurrens, glabra, 
ciliata, supra intense viridis in sicco fuscescens, nervis obsoletis, 
subtus multo pallidior, costa tenera inconspicua, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere ca. 4 obscuris, lamina utrinque sat dense cystolithis 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 251 

parvis pallidis linearibus conspersa vel cystolithis in foliis vetustiori- 
bus saepe obsoletis; flores axillares solitarii, pedicellis 2-3 mm. 
longis; hypanthium glabrum anguste turbinatum 2 mm. longum; 
calycis lobi lanceolato-subulati acuminati vix ultra 0.5 mm. longi 
erecti; corolla viridescenti-alba glabra in alabastro 6 mm. longa 
apicem obtusum versus paullo angustata, tubo anguste obconico; 
bacca rubra ovalis in sicco 3 mm. tan turn longa glabra. Guatemala: 
Dept. Zacapa: Sierra de las Minas, slopes of Monte Virgen, around 
summit of mountain, alt. about 2,400 meters, January 12-13, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 42600 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This plant is noteworthy for its very small, largely quaternate or 
sometimes ternate leaves, and for the 1-flowered axillary inflores- 
cences. Verticillate leaves are not unknown in this genus, but they 
are most unusual, at least among Central American species. 

Hoffmannia vulcanicola Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
2-3-metralis omnino glaber, ramis gracillimis teretibus, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae fere ad lineam reductae, parte libera caduca; 
folia membranacea longipetiolata opposita, petiolo gracillimo 2-3 
cm. longo; lamina elliptico-lanceolata usque elliptica vulgo 12-15 cm. 
longa atque 4.5-7 cm. lata, anguste longiacuminata, basi acuta vel 
obtusa non vel vix decurrens, supra in sicco fuscescens, subtus pal- 
lidior, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 11 tenerrimis prominulis 
angulo lato arcuato-adscendentibus, venis obsoletis; inflorescentiae 
axillares singulae vel 2-3-nae graciliter usque ad 3 cm. longe pedun- 
culatae laxe cymosae vel cymoso-paniculatae vulgo pauciflorae, 
pedicellis gracillimis 3-7 mm. longis; hypanthium anguste clavatum 
1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx vix 0.4 mm. altus, dentibus minutis 
triangularibus subacutis; corolla pallide lutea extus glabra 8 mm. 
longa in alabastro fere linearis et acuta vel acuminata, fere ad basin 
5-loba, segmentis lanceolato-oblongis acutis, tubo brevissimo; bacca 
ovalis in sicco 5 mm. longa. Guatemala: Dept. Solola: Southern 
slopes of Volcan de Atitlan, above Finca Moca, alt. 1,000-1,250 
meters, June 20, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 47931 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). Dept. San Marcos: Slopes of Volcan de Tajumulco, 
above Finca El Porvenir, 1,400-1,700 meters, March, 1940, Steyer- 
mark 37258. 

A plant of ordinary appearance for the genus, and without any 
conspicuous distinguishing characters (as usually is the case in Hoff- 
mannia). Related to H. Conzattii Standl., of Guatemala and 
southern Mexico, but in that the tube of the corolla is about as long 
as the lobes. 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Palicourea phanerandra Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Arbuscula 4.5-6 m. alta omnino glabra, ramis subteretibus, vetusti- 
oribus ochraceis, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae fere 
minutae vix 1 mm. longae apice minute bidentatae; folia inter 
minora rigide membranacea breviter petiolata sublucida, petiolo 
2-3 mm. longo; lamina lanceolato-oblonga vel elliptico-oblonga 6-10 
cm. longa 2-4 cm. lata longe cuspidato-acuminata vel sensim 
attenuato-acuminata, base acuta, in sicco fuscescens, costa venisque 
supra prominentibus, subtus fere concolor, costa tenera elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 6 arcuatis angulo semirecto 
adscendentibus, prominentibus, venis prominulis reticulatis; inflores- 
centiae terminales graciliter 2-3 cm. longe pedunculatae corymbi- 
formes pauciflorae vix ultra 2 cm. longae et paullo latiores, sublaxae, 
floribus rigide pedicellatis vel alaribus sessilibus, pedicellis arcuatis 
vix ultra 2 mm. longis; hypanthium ca. 0.6 mm. longum crasse 
columnare, calyce 0.5 mm. longo, dentibus late triangularibus sub- 
acutis; corolla alba extus glabra ca. 15 mm. longa, tubo crassiusculo 
basi subobliquo superne vix dilatato, lobis oblongis obtusis 4-5 mm. 
longis patentibus vel subrecurvis intus glabris; stamina longiexserta, 
filamentis 3;5 mm. tubo corollae longioribus, antheris linearibus 2.5 
mm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. Izabal: Cerro San Gil, uppermost 
ridges and summit, alt. about 1,200 meters, December 26-27, 1941, 
Julian A. Steyermark 41952 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This is a plant with no outstanding characters except the much 
exserted stamens, a condition seldom found in this or related genera. 
The species is of somewhat uncertain position, and could be referred 
quite as well to Psychotria, except that the general appearance and 
the long corollas are more suggestive of Palicourea. 

Psychotria lilacina Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex dense 
ramosus 1-1.5 m. altus, ramis glabris, vetustioribus crassiusculis 
teretibus, internodiis brevibus; stipulae in vaginam vix 0.6 mm. altam 
connatae, vagina dentibus 2 vix 0.5 mm. longis acutis onusta; folia 
parva petiolata membranacea in sicco fuscescentia, petiolo 2-5 mm. 
longo glabro; lamina oblongo-elliptica usque obovato-oblonga 2-5.5 
cm. longa 0.7-2.2 cm. lata, breviter obtuso-acuminata vel obtusa, 
basi obtusa usque acuminata, glabra, subtus paullo pallidior, 
nervis utrinque obscuris, lateralibus utroque latere ca. 6 arcuatis; 
inflorescentiae terminales corymbiformes vel umbelliformes plerum- 
que 3-5-florae breviter pedunculatae, pedicellis crassiusculis 1-3 mm. 
longis glabris; hypanthium glabrum columnare ca. 0.8 mm. longum; 
calyx ca. 3-3.5 mm. longus glaber fere ad basin 5-lobatus, segmentis 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 253 

lanceolatis adscendentibus vel superne subrecurvis attenuato- 
acuminatis vel interdum obtusis; corolla lilacina extus glabra ca. 
8 mm. longa, tubo crasso cylindraceo, lobis brevibus ovalibus. 
Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Cerro Huitz, between Miman- 
huitz and Yulhuitz, Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. 1,500-2,600 
meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 48564 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.); Cerro Canana, between Nucapuxlac and Canana, 
Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, 2,500-2,800 meters, Steyermark 49107. 
A plant of the cloud forest of the high mountains. Well marked 
among Central American species by the small leaves, deeply lobate 
calyx, few-flowered inflorescences, and rather large corollas. 

Psychotria minarum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
ramosus 30-90 cm. altus, ramis subteretibus puberulis vel glabratis, 
internodiis brevibus, vetustioribus sordido-ochraceis; stipulae in 
vaginam brevissimam truncatam connatae, vagina dentibus 2 tri- 
angularibus acutis vix 0.5 mm. longis remotis onusta; folia parva 
breviter petiolata membranacea in sicco fuscescentia, petiolo gracili 
4-6 mm. longo glabro vel puberulo; lamina elliptica, ovato-elliptica 
vel oblongo-elliptica 3-6.5 cm. longa 1-2.7 cm. lata, acuta vel 
acuminata, apice ipso saepe obtuso, basi acuta vel obtusa, supra 
glabra, subtus pallidior glabra vel praesertim ad costam nervosque 
scaberula, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 5-6 inconspicuis arcuato- 
adscendentibus, venis obsoletis; inflorescentiae terminales usque 
ad 1 cm. longe pedunculatae corymbiformes vulgo 3-5-florae inter- 
dum e basi trichotomae glabrae vel glabratae foliis multo breviores, 
floribus sessilibus vel breviter crasse pedicellatis; hypanthium 
obconicum 1.2 mm. longum glabrum; calyx vix 0.5 mm. longus, 
dentibus triangularibus acutis; fructus 4.5-5 mm. longus, pyrenis 
(una saepe abortiente) dorso obtuse costatis. Guatemala: Dept. El 
Progreso (Sierra de las Minas): Between Calera and summit of 
Volcan Siglo, alt. 2,000-3,000 meters, growing in colonies in shade 
of trees and shrubs near the summit, January 21, 1942, Julian A. 
Steyermark 43106 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); hills north of Finca 
Piamonte, Volcan Santa Luisa, 2,400-3,000 meters, common ground 
cover in cloud forest, Steyermark 43492. Dept. Zacapa (Sierra de las 
Minas) : Between Loma El Picacho and Cerro de Monos, 2,000-2,600 
meters, Steyermark 42809; vicinity of Finca Planados, 2,500 meters, 
Steyermark 29961. 

In general appearance this is much like P. lilacina, described 
above, but the calyces of the two species are very different. The 
corolla of P. minarum is unknown. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Rondeletia chinajensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbus- 
cula 6-9-metralis, ramis subteretibus gracilibus minute puberulis; 
stipulae deltoideae persistentes adpressae puberulae 1.5 mm. longae 
acutae vel subobtusae; folia petiolata coriacea sublucida, petiolo 
8-12 mm. longo crassiusculo puberulo; lamina elliptico-oblonga, 
rarius oblonga vel ovali-ovata, 3.5-6.5 cm. longa 1.8-3 cm. lata, 
apice obtusa vel anguste rotundata, basi obtusa vel subacuta, supra 
glabra, subtus fere concolor in sicco brunnescens, in axillis nervorum 
interdum breviter barbata, aliter glabra vel glabrata, nervis laterali- 
bus utroque latere 4-5 inconspicuis; inflorescentiae terminales sessiles 
vel breviter pedunculatae pauciflorae cymoso-capituliformes, floribus 
sessilibus vel subsessilibus; hypanthium ca. 1.5 mm. longum densis- 
sime albo-pubescens; calycis lobi 5 lineares vel anguste spathulato- 
lineares plerumque 4.5-5.5 mm. longi acuti vel subacuti, inferne 
sparse puberuli vel fere glabri viridescentes, interdum cum aliis 
multo brevioribus et angustioribus alternantes; corolla alba extus 
sat dense pilis albis patentibus vel subadpressis hispidula, tubo 
14-16 mm. longo cylindraceo vel superne paullo dilatato, lobis 4 
patentibus ovalibus vel obovato-ovalibus 6-8 mm. longis apice 
rotundatis intus subdense puberulis, fauce non barbata; capsula 
(imperfecta) globosa 4.5 mm. diam. Guatemala: Dept. Alta Vera- 
paz: On knife edge of limestone ridge, Cerro Chinaja, between Finca 
Yalpemech and Chinaja, alt. 150-700 meters, April 1-2, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 45637 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

A species of ambiguous affinities, noteworthy for its very obtuse, 
coriaceous, small leaves and dense head-like inflorescences. 

Rondeletia macrocalyx Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Arbus- 
cula 6-7.5 m. alta, ramis gracilibus, vetustioribus ferrugineis, novellis 
dense pilis longis rigidiusculis patentibus sordidis hirsutis, internodiis 
terminalibus brevibus vel brevissimis; folia majuscula breviter 
graciliter petiolata tenuiter membranacea, petiolo 6-12 mm. longo 
hirsute; lamina elliptica vel ovata 9-17 cm. longa 4-7 cm. lata 
breviter acuminata vel cuspidato-acuminata, basi obtusa usque 
attenuato-cuneata, utrinque sat dense pilis longis patentibus hirsuta, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 7 tenerrimis arcuato-adscendenti- 
bus; inflorescentiae axillares vel sub terminales cymosae plerumque 
3-florae interdum usque 9-florae foliis duplo breviores longipeduncu- 
latae, pedunculo gracillimo hirsute 3-5.5 cm. longo, floribus breviter 
vel longiuscule pedicellatis; hypanthium turbinatum dense longeque 
hirsutum; calycis lobi 4 anguste lanceolati subaequales ca. 15 mm. 
longi longiattenuati foliacei utrinque dense hirsuti; corolla alba extus 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 255 

dense pilis longis adscendentibus vel patulis sordidis hirsuta, tubo 
gracili 18-25 mm. longo cylindraceo, lobis 4 patentibus obovato- 
ovalibus 7-8 mm. longis apice late rotundatis intus glabris, fauce non 
barbata; capsula immatura oblongo-ovoidea 9 mm. longa 5 mm. lata 
dense hirsuta; semina numerosissima minuta angulata. Guatemala: 
Dept. Izabal: Wet forested slopes, alt. 300-900 meters, Cerro San 
Gil, December 25, 1941, Julian A. Steyermark 41864 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). 

This is similar to R. Mexiae Standl., of Oaxaca, but in that the 
calyx is much smaller and the pubescence consists of much less 
conspicuous, much shorter hairs. 

VALERIANACEAE 

Valeriana delicata Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba parva 
laxa simplex erecta vel adscendens 4-10 cm. alta perennis, e rhizo- 
mate gracili repente nascens, caule sparse pilis albis patentibus vel 
subreflexis piloso foliato; folia caulina vulgo 3 paria 3-15 mm. longe 
petiolata plerumque 5-foliolata, rhachi brevi vix alata pilosula;- 
foliola inaequalia, infima parva vulgo 3-5 mm. longa, superiora 
elliptica vel oblongo-elliptica sessilia plerumque 9-12 mm. longa 
obtusa grosse crenata, dentibus utroque latere 2-3, foliolo terminali 
elliptico, cuneato-elliptico vel obovato 12-20 mm. longo 8-12 mm. 
lato, crenato vel subtrilobo, basi cuneato petiolulato; foliola omnia 
tenuia pilis patentibus vel saepius subadpressis rectis pilosa; inflores- 
centiae terminales singulae corymbosae sed fere capituliform.es dense 
multiflorae vix ad 8 mm. latae basi foliaceo-bracteatae, ramis brevis- 
simis sparse pilosulis; flores albi, corolla minuta vix 1 mm. lata, tubo 
fere nullo, lobis brevissimis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: 
Cumbre Papal, on south-facing slopes between Cuilco and Ixmoqui, 
alt. 1,400-3,000 meters, August 19, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
50936 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

A dwarf and delicate plant, but otherwise with few distinguishing 
characters; not referable to any Mexican species of which we have 
seen any representation. The plants have every appearance of 
having attained their normal size, and do not appear to be depau- 
perate plants of some normally large one. 

GOMPOSITAE 

Cacalia pudica Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba erecta 
perennis 18-30 cm. alta, rhizomate brevi crasso radices numerosas 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

crassas carnosofibrosas emittente, caule simplici scapiformi; folia 
fere omnia radicalia, petiolo gracili 6-14 cm. longo laxe sparseque 
villoso vel glabrato; lamina membranacea orbicularis 4-5 cm. lata 
prope mediam peltata, breviter 7-loba, vel lobis interdum fere 
obsoletis, supra intense viridis glabra, subtus pallidior glabra vel 
sparse laxeque villosula et saepe glandulifera, lobis brevissimis late 
rotundatis apiculatis, vulgo plus minusve 3-nerviis; folium caulinum 
vulgo singulum, alio reducto infra capitulum interdum addito, 
profundius lobatum, lobis late triangularibus acutis; pedunculus 
apice incrassatus, bracteis paucis sparsis linearibus vel subulatis 
onustus; capitulum nutans, involucre 10-12 mm. alto 2-2.5 cm. 
lato; phyllaria 10-12 subbiseriata lanceolato-oblonga usque late 
ovata, intense purpurea, acuta vel obtusa, subaequalia vel exteriora 
angustiora et paullo breviora, ciliolata, sparse prope basin villosa 
vel glabra; flores disci numerosi, corollis intense purpureis 6.5 mm. 
longis glabris, dentibus fauce multo brevioribus; achaenia glabra, 
pappi setis fere albis 6-7 mm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehue- 
tenango (Sierra de los Cuchumatanes) : Alpine areas in vicinity of 
Tunima, alt. 3,400-3,500 meters, July 7, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
48344 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); near Che"mal, 3,700 meters, August 
9, 1942, Steyermark 50329. 

The plant is a very distinct one, different in several respects from 
all other species of Mexico and Central America. It is noteworthy 
especially for its solitary nodding heads and distinctly 2-seriate 
phyllaries. It could almost be taken as the type of a distinct genus, 
but it is inadvisable to add any further genera to this tribe in which 
generic characters are so notoriously poor, Cacalia itself being dubi- 
ously distinct from Senecio. 

Calea crassifolia Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex ramosus 
1.5-2.5 m. altus, ramis crassis teretibus densissime pilis brevibus 
patentibus plerumque brunnescentibus hispidulis, internodiis brevi- 
bus; folia opposita sessilia vel brevissime crasseque petiolata coriacea 
vel subcoriacea, rigida, late ovata vel saepius latissime deltoideo- 
ovata vel rotundo-ovata 5-7 cm. longa 3.5-6 cm. lata, apice obtusa 
vel subrotundata, basi breviter cordata usque rotundata, supra 
viridia densissime scabra tactu asperrima, subtus paullo pallidiora, 
ubique dense pilis brevibus patentibus asperulis hispidula, grosse 
crenato-serrata, dentibus mucronatis, e basi trinervia, venis subtus 
insigniter prominentibus et laxe reticulatis; capitula majuscula lutea 
ad apices ramorum densissime capitato-aggregata sessilia pauca ca. 
8 mm. alta et aequilata; phyllaria exteriora herbacea viridia oblonga 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 257 

vel lanceolato-oblonga acuta vel subacuta interioribus aequilonga 
vulgo plus minusve patentia dense hispidula ciliata, interioribus 
stramineis oblongis obtusis vel subacutis ciliatis glabris vel glabratis; 
corolla 4-4.5 mm. longa extus glabra, tubo abrupte in faucem 
aequilongum expanse ; achaenia angusta angulata 2.6 mm. longa 
sparse pubescentia; pappi squamae vulgo 5 ca. 4 mm. longa straminea 
profunde in lobos setaceos longiattenuatos dissectae. Guatemala: 
Dept. Alta Verapaz: Along knife-edge of limestone ridge, Cerro 
Chinaja, between Finca Yalpemech and Chinaja, above source of 
Rio San Diego, alt. 150-700 meters, April 1-2, 1942, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 45627 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Marked by the rather large, broad, rigid-coriaceous, very obtuse 
or rounded, sessile leaves, and the large heads with foliaceous outer 
phyllaries. The arrangement of the heads, densely capitate and 
sessile at the ends of the branches, is a most distinctive character if 
it is normal and constant, which may not be the case. 

Calea savannarum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba erecta 
perennis gracillima simplex vel sparse supra ramosa 90 cm. alta vel 
humilior, caule dense pilis albidis patentibus laxis villoso-piloso, 
internodiis vulgo foliis longioribus; folia opposita parva membranacea 
sessilia vel subsessilia triangulari-ovata vel oblongo-triangularia 
1.5-3 cm. longa 7-16 mm. lata apicem obtusum versus sensim 
angustata, basi breviter cordata vel truncata, breviter crenata vel 
undulato-crenata, supra viridia, subtus paullo pallidiora, utrinque 
pilis albis plurilocularibus villoso-pilosa, trinervia vel paullo supra 
basin triplinervia; capitula parva lutea ad apicem rami singula vel 
2-3, pedunculis gracillimis 4-7 cm. longis; discus ca. 5 mm. altus et 
4-5 mm. latus; phyllaria pauca subuniseriata late ovata obtusa 2.3 
mm. longa sparse strigillosa vel glabrata; paleae albidae tenues 3 mm. 
longae oblanceolatae obtusae; corolla fere 2 mm. longa, tubo brevi, 
fauce longo sensim dilatato; radii pauci, ligulis latis luteis 2.5 mm. 
longis; achaenia valde immatura ut videtur glabra, pappo coroni- 
formi e squamis minutis vix manifestis composito. Guatemala: 
Dept. Izabal: In savanna between Milla 49.5 and Cristina, alt. 
about 70 meters, April 3, 1940, Julian A. Steyermark 38658 (type in 
Herb. Field Mus.). 

All the heads of the none too ample type specimen are so young 
that it is difficult to determine exactly the characters of the achene 
and pappus. In general appearance the plant is very similar to C. 
multiradiata Seaton, of Mexico, to which it was first referred. That 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

differs, however, in its acutely serrate leaves of rather different 
outline, and in its larger heads with numerous purplish rays. 

Cirsium nigriceps Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba erecta 
alta, caule superne 1 cm. crasso exalato superne sat dense laxe 
arachnoideo-tomentoso, tomento albescente vel brunnescente, inter- 
nodiis superioribus brevibus; folia caulina sessilia et basi lata amplexi- 
caulia, ambitu lineari-oblonga ca. 17 cm. longa et 3.5 cm. lata supra 
viridia viscido-villosula vel puberula vel glabrata, subtus pallide 
viridia, ad costam nervosque laxe arachnoideo-tomentosa, aliter 
glabra vel glabrata, auriculis magnis valde dilatatis non decurrenti- 
bus; lamina profunde pinnatinda saepe fere ad costam lobata, lobis 
15-jugis vel paucioribus triangularibus vel triangulari-lanceolatis 
saepe trilobis vel grosse spinoso-serratis, apice seta straminea gracili 
sed rigida usque ad 7 mm. longa terminatis, acutis vel acuminatis; 
capitula ad apices ramulorum sessilia vel subsessilia dense aggregata, 
paniculam foliatam sparse ramosam 22 cm. longam atque 12 cm. 
latam efformantia, basi bracteis paucis inconspicuis angustis pro- 
funde spinoso-lobulatis involucrata; involucrum late campanulatum 
vel hemisphaericum in sicco nigrescens ca. 2 cm. altum et aequilatum; 
phyllaria numerosissima gradata adpressa lanceolato-linearia usque 
ad 1.3 mm. lata longiattenuata apice seta erecta rigida pallida vix 
2 mm. longa terminata, fere omnino glabra minute ciliolata eglandu- 
losa; corolla purpurea extus glabra, tubo fere filiformi ca. 12 mm. 
longo, fauce brevi paullo ampliato, lobis linearibus patentibus ca. 
3.5 mm. longis; achaenia subcompressa glabra cuneato-oblonga 
4 mm. longa; pappi setae plumosae sordidae ca. 1.5 cm. longae. 
Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Between Tojquia and Caxin 
bluff, summit of Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, alt. about 3,700 meters, 
August 6, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 50157 (type in Herb. Field 
Mus.). 

A rather well-marked species of no obvious affinities, not closely 
related to any of those known hitherto from Central America. 

Eupatorium montigenum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 
Frutex vel arbuscula 3-6-metralis, ramis densissime pilis brunnes- 
centibus vel sordidis patentibus villoso-pilosis teretibus, internodiis 
brevibus; folia graciliter petiolata tenuiter membranacea opposita, 
petiolo 1.5-3.5 cm. longo ut ramis induto; lamina oblongo-elliptica 
vel elliptico-ovata 11-17 cm. longa 5-8 cm. lata acuta vel acuminata, 
basi obtusa, adpresse inconspicue praesertim apicem versus serrato- 
dentata vel fere integra, supra viridis puberula et ad nervos costam- 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 259 

que villosula, subtus paullo pallidior ubique sat dense villoso-pilosula 
vel subtomentosa, penninervia, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 5 
arcuatis irregularibus, epunctata, venis pellucidis; inflorescentia 
terminalis corymboso-paniculata rotundata, capitulis numerosis 
albis cymulosis, vulgo graciliter pedicellatis, pedicellis plerumque 
4-7 mm. longis densissime pilis mollibus patentibus pilosulis; capitula 
bene evoluta non visa, involucre 5-6 mm. alto campanulato sat 
dense adpresso-pilosulo; phyllaria inaequalia gradata ca. 3-seriata 
saltern exteriora rubro tinctis, extimis brevibus ovatis obtusis vel 
subacutis, intimis oblongis apice obtusis vel rotundatis; flores ca. 10, 
corolla 4 mm. longa, tubo gracillimo cylindraceo glabro; pappi setae 
albae 2.5 mm. longae. Guatemala: Dept. El Progreso: Hills north of 
Finca Piamonte, on slopes toward summit of Volcan de Santa Luisa, 
Sierra de las Minas, alt. 2,400-3,000 meters, February 5, 1942, 
Julian A. Steyermark 43532 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). Dept. 
Jalapa: Forested slopes of quebrada, Montana Miramundo, near 
Miramundo, 2,000 meters, December, 1939, Steyermark 32836. 

A plant of somewhat ambiguous affinities, belonging to the group 
of species with pellucid-veined leaves but not closely related to any 
other Guatemalan species of that group. Both collections are in bud 
and the mature heads may be somewhat larger than described here. 

Hieracium clivorum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
perennis erecta vel adscendens, rhizomate brevi crasso radices 
numerosas crassiusculas emittente; scapus gracillimus 14-27 cm. 
longus vulgo monocephalus, interdum superne geniculatus et gemmis 
1-2 onustus, nudus vel prope basin folio singulo parvo onustus, 
prope basin pilis perpaucis longis patentibus indutus, superne glaber 
vel glabratus, infra capitulum pilis brevibus fulvescentibus puberulus 
vel pilosulus; folia radicalia numerosa 3.5-6.5 cm. petiolo incluso 
longa 8-10 mm. lata crassiuscule petiolata, obtusa vel subacuta, 
nigro-apiculata, utroque latere dentibus paucis repandis nigrescenti- 
bus remotis onusta, supra viridia glabra, subtus glaucescentia pallida 
pilis paucis longis mollibus ad costam nervosque et ad margines 
conspersa; bracteae lineares vel fere filiformes usque ad 8 mm. longis 
semper paucae atque inconspicuae; involucrum campanulatum 8-10 
mm. altum sat dense pilis brevibus viscidis subadpressis pilosulum, 
phyllariis ca. 12 lineari-lanceolatis attenuatis; capitula alba fere 
2 cm. lata ca. 1.5 cm. alta; pappus fulvescens; achaenia glabra 
fuscescentia. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango : On high bluffs in 
upper reaches of barranco, above San Juan Ixcoy, Sierra de los 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Cuchumatanes, alt. 2,400 meters, August 4, 1942, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 50065 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

This may be no more than a form of H. Skutchii Blake, of the 
same general region, but that is a much stouter plant with larger, 
bright yellow heads, the conspicuous and abundant pubescence of 
the involucres and peduncles composed in part of very coarse, long, 
spreading, blackish hairs. Although the four plants of the type sheet 
of H. clivorum have each a single head, it is suspected, because of the 
presence of sterile buds, that the plant sometimes produces more than 
a single head on each scape. 

Mikania concinna Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
scandens glabra, caulibus atropurpureis subteretibus, internodiis 
elongatis; folia inter minora longipetiolata subcoriacea plus minusve 
lucida, petiolo gracili 1-2.5 cm. longo; lamina late deltoideo-ovata vel 
rotundo-ovata 2.5-5.5 cm. longa 2-4.5 cm. lata acuta vel acuminata, 
basi late cordata vel subtruncata, supra viridis, nervis prominulis, 
venis obsoletis, subtus pallidior obscure punticulata, e basi 5-nervia, 
venis obsoletis, margine fere integro sed vulgo utroque latere dentibus 
ca. 3 repandis minutis onusto; capitula pauca in statu fructifero 12 
mm. longa sessilia vel subsessilia, bracteis ovatis vel ellipticis acutis 
ciliolatis involucre brevioribus; phyllaria purpureo tincta 7-8 mm. 
longa glabra vel glabrata ciliata oblonga vel late oblonga apice obtusa 
et apiculata in sicco sordido-brunnea costato-nervosa; corolla glabra 
pappo brevior; achaenia prismatica 4.5-5 mm. longa sordido-olivacea 
glabra, pappi setis brunnescentibus 5 mm. longis. Guatemala: Dept. 
Zacapa: Sierra de las Minas, climbing over steep mossy banks, middle 
and upper, southern slopes of Volcan Gemelos, alt. about 3,000 
meters, January 26, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 43292 (type in Herb. 
Field Mus.). 

A well-marked species, outstanding because of its small and very 
broad, subcoriaceous leaves in which the veins are invisible. The 
inflorescences are small, dense, and mostly 2.5-3.5 cm. broad. 

Mikania huitzensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
scandens, caulibus obscure hexagonis vel subteretibus glabris vel 
tantum ad nodos sparse puberulis, internodiis elongatis; folia inter 
minora graciliter petiolata membranacea, petiolo ca. 2 cm. longo 
glabro; lamina ovata ca. 4.5 cm. longa et 2.8 cm. lata acuminata vel 
acuta, basi subcordata vel late rotundata integra vel remote minute 
repando-denticulata, glabra, supra viridis, subtus paullo pallidior e 
basi 5-nervia, venis subtus manifestis; capitula numerosa alba in 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 261 

statu fructifero 12 mm. longa dense cymoso-corymbosa, corymbis 
foliatis 4-7 cm. latis, capitulis plerumque breviter pedicellatis, 
bracteis spathulatis usque ellipticis vel ovatis obtusis vel subrotunda- 
tis capitula interdum aequantibus; phyllaria 8 mm. longa glabra 
prope apicem ciliata acuta vel subacuta viridia in sicco brunnescentia 
pappo paullo breviora; corolla pappi setas subaequans glabra, lobis 
oblongo-linearibus tubum fere aequantibus; achaenia immatura 3.5 
mm. longa pallida sparse puberula vel glabra, pappi setis 5-6 mm. 
longis sordido-albidis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango : Sierra 
de los Cuchumatanes, Cerro Huitz, between Mimanhuitz and Yul- 
huitz, alt. 1,500-2,600 meters, July 14, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 
48662 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

Evidently allied to M. tacanensis Standl. & Steyerm., of Guate- 
mala, but in that species the leaves are conspicuously undulate- 
dentate or repand and the bracts subtending the heads are smaller, 
mostly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, and acute or acuminate. 

Mikania petrina Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba scandens, 
caulibus obscure hexagonis vel subteretibus dense brunneo-pilosulis, 
internodiis elongatis; folia inter minora longipetiolata membranacea 
in sicco fuscescentia, petiolo 2-3 cm. longo sordide brunneo-pilosulo; 
lamina ovata vel oblongo-ovata ca. 6 cm. longa et 3.5 cm. lata vel 
saepe minor, acuminata, basi truncata, subarcte serrato-dentata, 
utrinque scabra vel scaberula tactu aspera, subtus in statu juvenili 
brunneo-pilosa, e basi 5-nervia, venis subtus manifestis; capitula in 
statu fructifero 13 mm. longa numerosa cymoso-corymbosa sessilia 
dense aggregata, corymbis rotundatis ca. 5.5 cm. latis foliis reductis 
onustis, bracteis lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis involucre bre- 
vioribus acutis vel acuminatis; phyllaria ca. 7 mm. longa viridia in 
sicco sordido-brunnea anguste lanceolato-oblonga acuta vel abrupte 
acuta, dense brunneo-pilosula vel interdum glabrata; corolla glabra 
pappi setis paullo brevior; achaenia anguste prismatica pallide 
olivacea glabra vel sparsissime puberula 5 mm. longa, pappi setis 
fulvescentibus 6-7 mm. longis minute scaberulis. Guatemala: 
Dept. Solola: In wet cloud forest near the summit of Volcan de San 
Pedro, northern slopes toward Lago de Atitlan, above San Pedro, 
alt. 2,500-2,800 meters, June 7, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 47257 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

A species of ordinary appearance, somewhat related to M. 
tacanensis and M. huitzensis, but differing from both in its abundant 
dirty-brown pubescence. 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

Siegesbeckia nudicaulis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Herba 
erecta perennis 20-30 cm. alta e radice crassa suberecta vel repente 
nascens, caule singulo inferne simplici 1-3-cephalo nudo vel tantum 
foliis 2 bracteiformibus oppositis ca. 2 cm. longis onusto, pedunculis 
gracilibus 8-16 cm. longis basi bracteis 2 foliaceis oblongis vel lance- 
olato-oblongis 1.5-2.5 cm. longis sustentis, caule purpurascente sat 
dense pilis brevibus glanduliferis patentibus piloso, pedunculis 
densius pilis purpurascentibus vel nigrescentibus glanduloso-pilosis; 
folia radicalia ca. 8 petiolo incluso 5-8 cm. longa 2-4 cm. lata; 
lamina late ovata, rhombeo-ovata vel elliptica apice obtusa vel 
subrotundata, basi rotundata vel subacuta et saepius abrupte in 
petiolum lamina breviorem late alatum contracta, undulato-serrata 
vel subintegra, bene supra basin trinervia, supra sat dense villosa, 
subtus pallidior glabra vel glabrata; capitula lutea radiis expansis 
2-2.5 cm. lata; phyllaria exteriora ca. 8 late linearia 6-8 mm. longa 
basin versus angustata foliacea densissime glanduloso-pilosula apice 
rotundata vel subtruncata, patentia vel reflexa; phyllaria interiora 
obovato-oblonga 3-4 mm. longa obtusa extus glanduloso-pubescentia 
erecta; corolla 2 mm. longa, tubo pubescente fere filiformi limbo 
paullo breviore, limbo campanulato, lobis ciliolatis obtusis; radii 
lamina oblonga vel elliptica 5-10 mm. longa; achaenia irregularia 
nigrescentia obovoidea vel turbinata 2 mm. longa glabra sublucida 
apice truncata. Guatemala: Dept. Huehuetenango: Sierra de los 
Cuchumatanes, above San Juan Ixcoy, along trail to Tojquia, alt. 
2,800-3,400 meters, August 5, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 50114 
(type in Herb. Field Mus.). 

From continental North America only two other species of the 
genus are known, S. repens Rob. & Greenm., of Oaxaca, which we 
have not seen, evidently distinct from the Guatemalan plant, and 
the common and widespread S. triangularis Cav., of which S. 
jorullensis HBK. is a synonym. That is an altogether different 
plant, with leafy stems and very numerous, much smaller heads with 
relatively much more elongate outer phyllaries. The Guatemalan 
species is the only American plant of the genus that we have seen 
that appeared really different from S. triangularis. We are aware 
of the fact that the generic name appeared originally as Sigesbeckia, 
but since it was intended to honor a man whose name was written 
consistently as Siegesbeck, it seems rather silly to use the original 
spelling, which must have been the result of a slip of the pen. 

Verbesina calciphila Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex 
ca. 1.5 m. altus ramosus, ramis gracilibus, novellis dense scabro- 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 263 

hispidulis, internodiis brevibus; folia alterna brevissime petiolata 
herbacea, petiolo nudo vix ultra 3 mm. longo; lamina oblanceolata 
vel oblongo-oblanceolata 9-11.5 cm. longa 2-4 cm. lata acuminata, 
basi longe sensim cuneato-attenuata, remote inconspicue repando- 
serrulata, supra viridis dense scabra, pilis basi incrassatis, subtus 
pallidior ad nervos venasque hispidula inter venas glabra; capitula 
pauca laxe corymboso-paniculata graciliter 2-4.5 cm. longe pedicel- 
lata, disco ad anthesin ca. 1 cm. alta et aequilata, in statu fructifero 
paullo majore; phyllaria inaequalia laxe imbricata vel plus minusve 
patentia herbacea oblonga vel oblanceolato-oblonga, interiora ca. 
1 cm. longa vel paullo ultra, exteriora breviora, obtusa vel acuta 
scabra vel adpresso-hispidula; paleae rigidae 6-7 mm. longae lanceo- 
lato-oblongae acutae glabrae; radii lamina oblongo-linearis 10-14 
mm. longa lutea; achaenia immatura cuneato-oblonga 3 mm. longa 
glabra ut videtur anguste alata strigoso-ciliata, pappi setis ca. 4 mm. 
longis erectis antrorse scaberulis. Guatemala: Dept. Huehue- 
tenango: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, between Tojquia and Caxin 
bluff, alt. 3,700 meters, a shrub hanging from a limestone bluff, 
August 6, 1942, Julian A. Steyermark 50132 (type in Herb. Field 
Mus.); above San Juan Ixcoy, upper forest above Yulhuitz, 2,400 
meters, August 4, 1942, Steyermark 50080. 

Among Central American species this plant has no close relatives, 
nor does it agree with any of the shrubby species reported from Mex- 
ico. In foliage it suggests the Guatemalan V. pleistocephala Donn. 
Smith, which has much smaller heads with short rays. 

Verbesina minarum Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex vel 
arbuscula 2.5-4.5 m. alta ut videtur dense ramosa, ramis crassiusculis 
subteretibus, novellis dense pallido-strigulosis, vetustioribus brun- 
nescentibus, internodiis brevibus; folia alterna breviter petiolata 
subcoriacea, petiolo crasso usque ad 13 mm. longo minute puberulo 
vel strigilloso; lamina oblanceolata vel oblongo-oblanceolata 4.5-11 
cm. longa 1-4 cm. lata obtusa vel acuta basin versus longe sensim 
angustata, integra vel prope apicem pauciserrata, supra viridis 
glabra, nervis pallidis manifestis, subtus pallida, glabra vel minute 
et inconspicue strigillosa, costa crassiuscula prominula, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere 7-8 inconspicuis arcuatis irregularibus, 
venis obsoletis; inflorescentia terminalis corymbosa dense multi- 
capitata vulgo 3-6 cm. lata foliis brevior, capitulis albis usque ad 
12 mm. longe pedicellatis vel fere sessilibus, campanulatis in statu 
florifero ca. 7 mm. longis basi obtusis; involucrum 4^1.5 mm. altum, 
phyllariis viridescentibus graduatis imbricatis, exterioribus oblongo- 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. 23 

ovatis, interioribus oblongis, omnibus obtusis vel subacutis minute 
sparse puberulis; corollae 3.5 mm. longae prope basin puberulae, 
tubo basi fere filiformi subito in faucem cylindraceum ampliato, 
lobis brevissimis; paleae lineari-oblongae 4 mm. longae pallidae 
membranaceae obtusae; achaenia immatura compressa glabra 
obscure ciliata, pappi setis 1.2-2 mm. longis erectis. Guatemala: 
Dept. Zacapa (Sierra de las Minas): Rio Repollal, upper slopes to 
summit of the mountain, alt. 2,100-2,400 meters, January 12-13, 
1942, Julian A. Steyermark 42489 (type in Herb. Field Mus.); also 
no. 42516. Dept. El Progreso (Sierra de las Minas) : Between Calera 
and summit of Volcan Siglo, 2,000-3,000 meters, January 21, 1942, 
Steyermark 43030. 

An isolated species, not closely related to any other of which we 
have seen material. It is marked by its woody branches, small 
coriaceous glabrous leaves, minute pubescence of the stems, and 
small white discoid heads. 

Vernonia mima Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. Frutex erectus 
2-3-metralis, ramis brunnescentibus subtortuosis, novellis dense 
pilis sordidis pilosis vel subtomentosis; folia longiuscule petiolata 
membranacea, petiolo crassiusculo 1.5-3 cm. longo dense tomentoso; 
lamina late ovata vel elliptico-ovata 7-12.5 cm. longa 5-8 cm. lata 
acuta, basi rotundata vel obtusa, interdum abrupte contracta et 
breviter decurrens, subintegra, supra sparse puberula vel glabrata, 
subtus vix pallidior, minute puncticulata, laxe subtomentosa vel 
breviter pilosula, penninervia, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 6-8 
prominentibus gracilibus arcuatis, venis prominulis laxe reticulatis; 
capitula alba dense cymulosa sessilia vel subsessilia turbinato-cam- 
panulata numerosissima, cymulis paniculam magnam ovoideam 
foliatam 20-30 cm. longam efformantibus, ramis dense tomentulosis 
vel sordido-pilosulis; involucrum 8 mm. altum; phyllaria 4-5- 
seriata gradata viridescentia pallida glabra vel glabrata, exteriora 
triangulari-ovata acuta interdum tomentulosa, interiora oblongo- 
linearia obtusa pappi setas aequantia; flores ca. 10; achaenia imma- 
tura turbinata brunnea glabra 1.3 mm. longa, basi calloso-incras- 
sata, pappi setis albis 4.5 mm. longis deciduis. Guatemala: Dept. 
Huehuetenango: Damp hillside thicket, near crossing of Rio San 
Juan Ixtan, east of San Rafael Pe*tzal, alt. about 1,730 meters, 
January 9, 1941, Paul C. Standley 82871 (type in Herb. Field Mus.). 
Dept. Quezaltenango: Volcan de Santa Maria, above Santa Maria 
de Jesus, 1,500-3,000 meters, January, 1940, Steyermark 33990. 



STUDIES OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PLANTS VII 265 

This seems to be related most closely to V. oaxacana Schultz. 
Bip. of Mexico, which we know only by a photograph of the type. 
That species is reported by Blake from both Oaxaca and Chiapas, 
and might well be expected to occur in Quezaltenango and Huehue- 
tenango. According to the type photograph, however, it is a plant 
in which the leaves have narrow bases, and all or most of the heads 
are on long slender pedicels. In general appearance this new species 
is much like V. leiocarpa DC., a common shrub of Guatemala, 
belonging to the group treated as a separate genus Eremosis, by some 
authors. In that genus the flowers are less numerous, generally 
only 1-6 in a head. 



NOTES 

Erechtites agrestis (Swartz) Standl. & Steyerm., comb. nov. 
Sonchus agrestis Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 110. 1788. 

Rumfordia Standleyi (Steyerm.) Standl. & Steyerm., comb, 
nov. Polymnia Standleyi Steyermark, Field Mus. Bot. 23: 106. 1944. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA